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July 1967 

Featuring 03113035 

Century* Progress 




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if Both a professional modeling and 
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411 East South Temple • Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 

Memo to our readers: 

When it was determined that The Im- 
provement Era would use a cover and 
an article featuring Canada during that 
great country's centennial year, we 
turned to our art director, Ralph 
Reynolds, for pictures, and to a new 
staff member, William T. Sykes, for the 
written word. The 11 beautiful color 
photographs, which feature many parts 
of Canada (including the Alberta Tem- 
ple), were taken by Elder Reynolds on a 
recent trip that took him from Quebec 
to Cardston. Brother Sykes spent most 
of his life in that country (see article and 
biographical note, page 4) and writes 
with all the love, warmth, and under- 
standing of a proud Canadian citizen. 

A report on a fascinating new dis- 
covery by the Church Historian's Office 
is reported in this issue by Era research 
editor Albert L. Zobell, Jr., in the article 
"Deseret Alphabet Manuscripts Found." 
This is the first of a series of articles 
on brief glimpses into our rich heritage 
by Brother Zobell, which will run under 
the general title "Lest We Forget." 

Brother Zobell, who 
holds B.S. and M.S. de- 
grees in history and 
political science from 
the University of Utah, 
has been a member of 
the Era staff since 
1940. This fall his 27th 
book of inspirational thoughts will be 
published. He is also author of Under 
the Midnight Sun, a centennial history 
of the Scandinavian missions, and 
Sentinel in the East, a biography of 
Thomas L. Kane. His contribution to 

in general and The 
in particular is im- 
think you will like 

Church literature 
Improvement Era 

measurable. We 
his new series. 

Managing Editor 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations. 
Home Teaching Committee, Music Committee, Church School System, and 
other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 

July 1967 

The Voice of the Church 

July 1967 

Volume 70, Number 7 

Special Features 

2 Editor's Page: Men Who Hold the Priesthood, President David 0. 

4 A Century of Progress in Canada, William T. Sykes 

10 Lest We Forget: Deseret Alphabet Manuscript Found, Albert L. 
Zobell, Jr. 

12 The Era Asks About Nauvoo Restoration 

20 Girls' Camping in the MIA, Eleanor Knowles 

24 The "Mormon*' Missionary, John A. Widtsoe 

49 A Song in the Night, Ruth C. Ikerman 
54 A Forgotten Reformer, Derek Dixon 

Regular Features 

32 Best of Movies 

50 Genealogy: Major Sources in the United States 
58 LDS Scene 

60 Teaching: Teaching Is a Touching Business (Part 1), Neil J. Flinders 

62, 63, 64 The Spoken Word, Richard L Evans 

66 Melchizedek Priesthood: The Eternal Family in the Church 

68 Presiding Bishopric's Page: It's Right There in the Handbook 

70 Today's Family: A Chicken in Every Pot, Florence B. Pinnock 

74 The Church Moves On 

76 Buffs and Rebuffs 

78 These Times: The American Farmer, G. Homer Durham 

80 End of an Era 

Era of Youth 

33-48 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 

Fiction, Poetry 

26 Cousin Laurie, Patricia Middleton Faas 
65, 80 Poetry 

David 0. McKay and Richard L. Evans. Editors: Doyle L. Green. Managing Editor: Albert L Zobell. Jr.. Research Editor: Mabel Jones Gabbott. Jay M. Todd. 
Eleanor Knowles. Editorial Associates: Florence B. Pinnock. Today's Family Editor: Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon. Era of Youth 
Associate Editor: Ralph Reynolds. Art Director: Norman F. Price. Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham. Franklin S. Harris. Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry. Alma A. Gardiner, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager: Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager: Verl F. Scott. Business Manager: A. Glen Snarr, Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director: Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith. Advertising Representatives. 

©General Superintendent. Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1967. and published by the 

Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price. $3.00 a year, in advance; 

multiple subscriptions, 2 years. $5.75: 3 years. $8.25: each succeeding year, 52.50 a year added to the three-year price; 35$ single copy, except for 

special issues. 

Entered at the Post Office. Salt Lake City. Utah, as second-class matter, Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103. 

act of October 1917. authorized July 2. 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for on acceptance and must be 

accompanied by sufficient. postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice iswequired for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. Address 

changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

The Editor's Page 

By President David 0. McKay 

• Peter the chief Apostle admonished the 
members of the priesthood: 

". . . I exhort, who am also an elder, and a 
witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also 
a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: 

"Feed the flock of God which is among you, 
taking the oversight thereof, not by con- 
straint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but 
of a ready mind; 

"Neither as being lords over God's heritage, 
but being ensamples to the flock. 

"And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, 
ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth 
not away. 

"Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves 
unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one 
to another, and be clothed with humility: for 
God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to 
the humble. 

"Humble yourselves therefore under the 
mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in 
due time: 

"Casting all your care upon him; for he 
careth for you. 

"Be sober, be vigilant; because your adver- 
sary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh 

about, seeking whom he may devour: 

"Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing 
that the same afflictions are accomplished in 
your brethren that are in the world." 
(1 Pet. 5:1-9.) 

These instructions are nineteen hundred 
years old, yet new today, and just as appli- 
cable now as then to the elders of this Church. 
Peter said they should be "ensamples to the 
flock." I should just like to ask if that example 
starts at home. What better place to exer- 
cise the lofty ideals of the priesthood? 

The older I grow, the more grateful I am 
for my parents, for what they did in that old 
farm home. They lived the gospel. Father 
used to preach it, particularly to visitors who 
came, more than to us boys and girls; but both 
Father and Mother lived the gospel. I realize 
more than ever before that my testimony of 
the reality of the existence of God dates back 
to that home when I was a child. It was 
through their teachings and their examples 
that I received, even as a child, the absolute 
knowledge that God is my Father, that I re- 
ceived then the knowledge of the reality of 
the spiritual world; and I testify to you that 
that is a reality. 

It is easy for me to accept as a divine truth 
the fact that Christ preached to the spirits 
in prison while his body lay in the tomb. It 
is true. And it is just as easy for me to realize 
that one may so live that he may receive im- 
pressions and direct messages through the 
Holy Ghost. The veil is thin between those 
who hold the priesthood and those on the 
other side of the veil. 

That testimony began, was borne in that 
home, because of the example of a man who 
lived the priesthood and a wife who sustained 
him and lived it in the home. I do not know 
that Peter had that in mind, particularly, 
when he mentioned "being ensamples to the 
flock" (1 Pet. 5:3), but I do know that each 
home is a part of that flock. The influence 
you spread in your home will go throughout 
the ward and the stake, and then will go 
throughout the city, the state, the country, 
and the world. 

The most precious thing in the world is a 

Improvement Era 

testimony of the truth. Truth never grows 
old, and the truth is that God is the source of 
your priesthood and mine, that he lives, that 
Jesus Christ stands at the head of this Church, 
and that every man who holds the priesthood, 
if he lives properly, soberly, industriously, 
humbly, and prayerfully, is entitled to the 
inspiration and guidance of the Holy Spirit. I 
know that it is true! 

God help us to defend the truth-better 
than that, to live it, to exemplify it in our 
homes. What we owe to our parents we 
cannot express. Are you parents going to have 
that same influence on your children? Never 
set an improper example before them. You 
are men of the priesthood, and you are 
leaders. Never let them hear a cross word. 
You should control yourself. He is a weak 
man who flies into a passion, whether he is 
working a machine, plowing, or writing, or 
whatever he may be doing in the home. 

A man who cannot control his temper is 
not very likely to control his passions, and no 
matter what his pretensions in religion, he 
moves in daily life very close to the animal 
plane. Religion is supposed to lift us on a 
higher level. Religion appeals to the spirit in 
man, your real person, and yet how often, 
notwithstanding our possessing a testimony 
of the truth, we yield to the carnal side of 
our nature. 

The man who quarrels in his home banishes 
from his heart the spirit of religion. Any 
quarreling in the home is antagonistic to the 
spirituality that Christ would have us develop 
within us, and it is in our daily lives that 
these expressions have their effect. 

Man is making great progress in science 
and invention, greater perhaps than ever be- 
fore, but he is not making comparable 
progress in character and spirituality. 

You men who hold the priesthood, a man 
of the priesthood should not fly into a passion. 
Learn to be dignified. To hold the priesthood 
of God by divine authority is one of the 
greatest gifts that can come to a man, and 
worthiness is of first importance. The very 
essence of priesthood is eternal. He is greatly 
blessed who feels the responsibility of repre- 

senting Deity. He should feel it to such an 
extent that he would be conscious of his 
actions and words under all conditions. 

No man who holds the Holy Priesthood 
should treat his wife disrespectfully. No man 
who holds that priesthood should fail to ask 
the blessings on his food or to kneel with his 
wife and children and ask for God's guidance. 
A home is transformed because a man holds 
and honors the priesthood. We are not to use 
it dictatorially, for the Lord has said that 
"when we undertake to cover our sins, or to 
gratify our pride, our vain ambition, or to 
exercise control or dominion or compulsion 
upon the souls of the children of men, in any 
degree of unrighteousness, behold, the heavens 
withdraw themselves; the Spirit of the Lord is 
grieved; and when it is withdrawn, Amen to 
the priesthood or the authority of that man." 
(D&C 121:37.) That revelation given by the 
Lord to the Prophet Joseph Smith is one of the 
most beautiful lessons in pedagogy or psy- 
chology and government ever given, and we 
should read it over and over again in the 121st 
Section of the Doctrine and Covenants. 

Let us realize that we are members of the 
greatest fraternity, the greatest brotherhood- 
the brotherhood of Christ-in all the world, 
and do our best each day, all day, to maintain 
the standards of the priesthood. 

Let us live honest, sincere lives. Let us 
be honest with ourselves, honest with our 
brethren, honest with our family, honest with 
men with whom we deal, always honest, for 
eyes are upon us, and the foundation of all 
character rests upon the principles of honesty 
and sincerity. 

The great keynote to every man is: Do the 
will of God. "If any man will do his will, he 
shall know for himself." (See John 7:17.) 
There is an opportunity every day of our lives 
to do that will. 

God is guiding this Church. Be true to it. 
Be true to your families, loyal to them. Pro- 
tect your children. Guide them, not arbi- 
trarily, but through kind example, and so 
contribute to the strength of the Church by 
exercising your priesthood in your home and 
in your lives. q 

July 1967 

A Century 

of Progress 

in Canada 



By William T. Sykes 

William T. Sykes, Canadian-born and educated at Stirling, Alberta, and the 
University of Alberta, was active in newspaper work at Lethbridge and 
Calgary and in administrative social work for the Alberta provincial govern- 
ment. He is now an editorial associate of The Improvement Era. 

^LThe Dominion of Canada, a sprawling geographical 
giant bordering the United States on the north, is 
observing its centennial this year. Boasting of— and 
contending with— two official languages, its twenty 
million inhabitants, through their politically elected 
representatives, have issued open invitations to all the 
people of the world. 

Members of the Church who live in Canada are 
taking part in the year-long celebration. Many of 
them are descendants of those who pioneered southern 
Alberta and trace their Canadian history back almost 
to Canada's day of confederation. Eastern Canada 
was a fruitful missionary field during the early history 
of the Church. The Lord revealed to the Prophet 
Joseph Smith that the land was a part of the choice 
land of Zion, as described by ancient prophets, in the 
center of which land should be the mountain of the 

To a world living in a space age, an age in which 
vast sources of atomic power are being harnessed for 
peacetime purposes, a reminder of a century of time 
past may appear as an interruption in a hurried 
schedule. The year 1867 was a far cry from man's 
projected moon trips and the computerized industry 

of today: a time before half of the world's existing na- 
tions were formed; when the pound sterling ruled the 
commerce of the seas; when the great industrial age 
was beginning its march over the earth; when the 
young American republic was healing its wounds after 
the civil war between the north and the south. That 
was the year when some Americans argued that the 
United States had purchased a white elephant when 
it paid two cents an acre for 360,000,000 acres of ice 
and snow— Alaska. In that year, on the first day of 
July, with comparatively few looking on, the Dominion 
of Canada was quietly born. 

Stretching nearly 5,000 miles from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, it is the world's second 
largest country. It has the longest transcontinental 
railroad and the longest TV network in the world. It 
shares with the United States the longest undefended 
border ( in 1966 there were 56 million crossings ) ; and 
it has the largest inland port in the world, Montreal 

Canada has been described as a huge structure 
with only its lower floors partly occupied. Northern 
Canada, with its long winters and enormous frozen 
wasteland, has been uninviting to all but a compara- 

Improvement Era 

(D) President Heber J. Grant and party traveled by train to Cardston 
for temple dedication, 1923. (E) Picturesque Anglican church is 
situated in lovely forest setting near Mimetaki, Ontario. (F) Placid 

tive few. Yet it contains rich mineral and forest 
areas. Huge financial institutions have explored these 
areas and have poured billions of dollars into their 
development. The long arm of industry has reached 
into the north and is tapping the enormous oil deposits 
in Alberta's Athabasca tar sands. Canada's pulp paper 
mills lead the world in the production of newsprint. 
The country also leads in the production of nickel, 
asbestos, uranium, and platinum. More than a billion 
dollars have been invested in the mining and trans- 
portation of iron ore from Labrador, where the largest 
iron deposit in North America was discovered. A 
highly industrialized society has developed and manu- 
factures and sells more than $31,000,000,000 worth of 
goods a year. 

The image of Canada as a cold and dreary land has 
remained in the minds of many people. Some may be 
surprised to learn that the southern tip of the province 
of Ontario is farther south than the California-Oregon 
state line and that the temperature in Victoria, B.C., 
averages above 50 degrees Fahrenheit. From Windsor, 
Ontario, a tourist may look north to the city of 

It would be an error to assume that the history of 

waters of Lake Louise in Alberta reflect snow-covered glacier in the 
background. (G) Century-oid buildings of stone are typical sight in 
city of Quebec on St. Lawrence River. (H) Ottawa office building. 

this vast country is limited to a period of one hundred 
years. Canada's native Indian inhabitants are rem- 
nants of a much earlier civilization. Scattered and 
fallen from a state of prosperity, enlightenment, and 
power, they were, by the year 1497, incapable of 
defending themselves against foreign powers. In that 
year, only five years after Columbus discovered 
America, John Cabot claimed the northern lands for 
the English crown; and in 1534, Jacques Cartier 
planted the French flag on Quebec's Gaspe peninsula. 
Historians reveal that whereas Cortes led the Spaniards 
in a bloody conquest of Mexico in 1519, the occupa- 
tion of Canada and conquest of her native inhabitants 
were comparatively peaceful. However, the conflict 
between the English and French explorers and 
merchants was not peaceful. The struggle for trade, 
wealth, and power came to a head in 1759 when 
General James Wolfe, who lost his life in the battle, 
defeated the French General Montcalm on the Plains 
of Abraham, Quebec. By the treaty of Paris, Canada 
became British territory in 1763. 

Conditions affecting the future of Britain's thirteen 
colonies to the south were becoming more and more 
unfavorable. Bitter resentment against her economic 

July 1967 

policy with her subjects across the Atlantic had 
grown to such proportions that by 1775 the skirmishes 
and local battles around Boston had spread until the 
whole Atlantic seaboard was enveloped in the flame 
of war. When, in 1783, the United States won her 
independence, a large number of her citizens, still 
loyal to the mother country, accepted an offer of free 
lands in Canada. Since then they have been known 
as the United Empire Loyalists, and more than forty 
thousand of them migrated to Canada to assist in the 
further development and colonization of the north. 
The biggest single event of Canada's centennial 
celebration is the international exhibition called 
Expo 67, in Montreal from April 28 to October 27. 
With the theme "Man and His World," the planners 

(A) New as well 
as old buildings 
in downtown 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 

.- ;i Mtr 




iittm mtitnii:^ 


^•r ^« 

(B) Paper mill at 
Dryden, Ontario. 

(C) Steeple of old 
Cathedral at St. Marie, 

(D) Charles Ora Card 
and Theodore Brandley, 
early Mormon pioneers 
in Canada. 

(E) Alberta government 
administration building at 

(F) Typical farm 
scene on prairies 
of Saskatchewan. 

A ■ 


(G) Canadian houses 
of Parliament 
at Ottawa. 

of this exhibit show man as creator, provider, ex- 
plorer, and producer. 

One of the highlights of Expo 67 will be the appear- 
ance of the Salt Lake Tabernacle Choir at the 
Maisonneuve Theatre August 22 and 23 at 8:15 p.m. 
This will be the third appearance in Canada of this 
world-famous group. The first two Canadian appear- 
ances were at Toronto November 7, 1958, and at 
Vancouver, B.C., August 14, 1962. The Montreal 
appearance will be included in the choir's tour that 
also includes Omaha, Nebraska, August 21; Attle- 
boro, Massachusetts, August 24; Chautauqua, New 
York, August 25; Saratoga Springs, New York, with the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, August 26-27; Detroit, Michi- 
gan, August 28; and Tulsa, Oklahoma, August 29. 
"The Spoken Word" will be given by Elder Richard 
L. Evans of the Council of the Twelve. Richard P. 
Condie will conduct the choir, with Alexander 
Schreiner as organist. 

Members of the Church living in Canada stand 
solidly on the foundation that they helped to build. 
Numbering over 50,000, they have spread from a 
small beginning and now may be found in large 
or small numbers across the Dominion. Statistics 
reveal that at the time of this writing there were nine 
organized stakes and three missions serving the mem- 
bers of the Church and carrying the message of the 
gospel to many others. Membership has rapidly 
increased, and members of the Church are continually 
planning and building to meet the expanding growth. 

From that membership have come many men and 
women who have contributed much to the building 
of the kingdom of God and the establishment of Zion. 

Members of the Church 
have played significant roles 
in Canada's history. 

Presidents Hugh B. Brown and N. Eldon Tanner of 
the First Presidency were Canadians by adoption, and 
Bishop Victor L. Brown of the Presiding Bishopric 
was born in Alberta. And it was to eastern Canada 
that some of the early missionaries were sent to search 
out the honest in heart. Many were converted and 
baptized— among them, four English people living in 
Canada: John Taylor, later to become the third Presi- 
dent of the Church, and Joseph Fielding and his two 
sisters, Mary and Mercy Fielding. Mary Fielding 
later married Patriarch Hyrum Smith and was the 
mother of Joseph F. Smith, sixth President of the 

As early as June 1832, Elders Joseph Young, Phineas 
H. Young, Elial Strong, and Eleazer Miller established 
the first branch of the Church in Canada at Ernes- 
town, Ontario. In December 1832, Brigham Young 
joined his brother Joseph and assisted in the organiza- 
tion of another branch at West Loughboro, Ontario. 
Elder Orson Pratt filled a mission there in 1833, and 
in that same year the Prophet Joseph Smith and 
Sidney Rigdon visited Canada and converted a num- 
ber to the Church. In 1836 Parley P. Pratt, by special 
appointment, commenced a successful mission in that 
country. Other early missionaries were Orson Hyde, 
Wilford Woodruff, Lyman E. Johnson, John E. Page, 
and William E. M'Lellen. 

After the Saints at Nauvoo migrated to the west 
and established themselves in the valleys around the 
Great Salt Lake, most of the Canadian Saints joined 
the main body of the Church. It was not until 1889 
that missionary work was continued in Canada under 
the direction of elders laboring in the Northern States 

The establishment of the Church in western Canada 
had its beginning similar to the colonization of the 
territory of Utah. So much persecution had been 
directed against the early members of the Church 
that when the Congress of the United States 
passed legislation that denied the Saints certain 
religious freedoms, it was looked upon as renewed 
persecution. As a result, scouting parties were sent 
out to investigate the possibilities of settling in Canada 
and in Mexico, and colonies were established in 
both countries. 

In 1886 Charles Ora Card, president of the Cache 
Stake, was asked by President John Taylor to settle 
in Canada and prepare the land for future migrations. 
President Card left his home late in the summer of 
1886 and started the long journey north, accompanied 
by Bishop Isaac Zundel and Elder James W. Hen- 
dricks. The party traveled through Oregon, Washing- 
ton, and southeastern British Columbia, through some 
of the most rugged parts of the Rocky Mountains, to 
Calgary, Alberta, then south, finally camping at the 
mouth of Lee's Creek October 24, 1886. Satisfied 
that they had found the right place, they returned 
to their home in Logan. 

The following May, President Card, with two other 
men, returned to arrange for the permanent posses- 
sion of land on Lee's Creek, the present site of Card- 
ston. A few days later he traveled south as far as 
Helena, Montana, to greet the main company of those 
coming to Canada, including his wife, Zina Young 
Card, daughter of Brigham Young. On June 3 this com- 
pany, numbering 41 Saints, arrived at Lee's Creek with 
9 wagons, 23 horses, 40 head of cattle, and several 
crates of chickens. The ten families, rain-soaked, 

July 1967 



British Columbia 












weary, fearful, yet full of faith and determination, 
pitched their tents and unloaded their possessions. 
Eight inches of snow fell that first night. 

A complete ward organization was set up October 7, 
1888, under the direction of Elders Francis M. Lyman 
and John W. Taylor of the Council of the Twelve. 
New industries were established, including a coopera- 
tive community store in 1888, a cheese factory in 
1890, and a saw and shingle mill and a French-Burr 
gristmill in 1891. 

Alberta now began to be looked upon as a country 
of many opportunities for new settlers. In 1891, 
President Card and Elder John W. Taylor arranged 
to rent 500,000 acres of land for a period of four 
years and at the end of that time to purchase it for 
one dollar an acre. When the Church entered into an 
agreement with the Alberta Irrigation Company to 
construct a canal from the St. Mary River eastward 
to bring water to new settlements, many Saints ac- 
cepted the call to assist in its construction. A number 
of farm villages and towns sprang up almost over- 
night, as new immigrants arrived from the south. 

Among the first were the village of Stirling, settled 
in May 1899, and the town of Magrath, settled that 
April. Raymond was settled in August 1901, and rrtany 
new settlers came in when construction of a beet 
sugar factory commenced in 1902. 

From these main centers the Latter-day Saint popu- 
lation spread in all directions. It is said that civic 
officials of the city of Lethbridge, before the turn of 
the century, insisted on certain stipulations in agree- 
ments with the Mormons under which the new settlers 
were not to come within a 20-mile radius of the city. 
This claim is substantiated by the fact that with Leth- 
bridge as center and 20 miles as a radius on the map, 

the point of the compass passes over the settlements 
of Magrath, Raymond, and Stirling. However, in 
later years these agreements were apparently forgotten 
and the Latter-day Saints extended their possessions 
into Lethbridge itself, with a member of the Church 
eventually becoming its mayor. 

An example of some of the hardships experienced 
by these early pioneers concerns an incident in the 
lives of the settlers at Stirling, as related by Andrew 
Jenson, one-time assistant Church historian. He 

". . . On May 4, 1899, Elder Theodore Brandley and 
29 companions stepped off the narrow gauge railroad 
at the Great Falls and Canadian Railway station, then 
the only building in sight on the prairie. . . . The little 
band of saints, filled with courage and hope, pitched 
their tents on the plains of Alberta with one aim in life: 
to do the will of their Heavenly Father. On Saturday, 
June 17, 1899, it began to rain. The men had all 
gone out to work on the canal, leaving Elder Brandley 
to care for the women and children who remained in 
town. Steadily the downpour continued, and, accord- 
ing to the government rain gauge, six inches of rain 
fell in the space of 14 hours. For two weeks this 
storm raged without ceasing. Tents would no longer 
give shelter from the rain and the people had to hold 
umbrellas over their heads while they ate their scanty 
meals, prepared under these circumstances. They 
were also compelled to sleep in wet bedding, and, as a 
last resource, cover their beds with dish pans to catch 
the water as it poured through the sodden canvas. 
But these sturdy settlers . . . stuck to their task and the 
outcome is a beautiful . . . town on the prairie. . . ." 
( Andrew Jenson, Encyclopedic History of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, p. 837. ) 


Improvement Era 

Dedication of the Alberta 

Temple in 1923 brought 

even greater blessings 

to the Saints in Canada. 

Map at far left shows provinces 
of Canada, with Church 

membership indicated for each. 

Elder David 0. McKay of 
the Council of the Twelve (in dark coat 
at right in photo) laid the 
cornerstone of Alberta 
Temple in August 1915. 

Many of these early pioneers suffered much in 
attempting to establish an economy in the face of 
some of the most severe winter conditions. On those 
broad, open prairies, high winds would often cause 
blinding blizzards, sweeping over low hills and filling 
gullies with drifts up to twenty feet deep. With the 
thermometer hovering around forty below zero, one 
early pioneer desperately searched for his cattle as 
they drifted with the wind, blindly seeking shelter. 
The cattle found shelter beneath a high bank along 
a dry creek bed. Hunched together for protection 
from the storm, they remained lost to view. Weeks 
later they were found, half buried in snow and frozen 
upright in a standing position— all that remained of 
the farmer's hoped-for yearly gain. 

But this was not the complete story. Spring and 
summer brought hope and new vision. Time to plant 
and time to reap. Time to overcome losses and time 
to profit by experiences. And always an impelling 
faith in God with a determination to assist in building 
his kingdom upon the earth. 

Missionary work continues to be the main cause 
of the growth of the Church in Canada. In 1919 the 
Canadian Mission in eastern Canada was organized, 
with Elder Nephi Jensen as president. The Western 
Canadian Mission was organized in 1941, with Elder 
Walter Miller as president. The Alaskan-Canadian 
Mission was organized in 1960, with Elder Milton L. 
Weilenmann as president. 

When the Saints settled in western Canada, they 
hoped a temple would be built in that land, that they 
might receive the greater blessings of the gospel. They 
were encouraged in this hope by promises made soon 
after the town of Cardston was settled. It was on 
Monday morning, October 8, 1888, that Elders Francis 

M. Lyman and John W. Taylor of the Council of the 
Twelve, accompanied by President Card and four 
others, rode to the top of a hill to the west of the 
town. The four men and three women formed a 
circle, and during the prayer that was offered, Elder 
Taylor prophesied that a temple would be erected 
on that spot. 

Twenty-five years later, on July 27, 1913, President 
Joseph F. Smith dedicated the temple site, and on 
November 9, 1913, Elder Daniel Kent Greene of 
Glendwoodville, Alberta, turned the first sod. Elder 
David O. McKay, then a member of the Council 
of the Twelve, laid the cornerstone on September 19, 
1915. Under the direction of President Edward J. 
Wood of the Alberta Stake, President Heber S. Allen 
of the Taylor Stake laid the capstone September 23, 
1917. On August 26, 1923, President Heber J. Grant 
dedicated the Alberta Temple, the first temple outside 
of the United States and, for many years, the only 
temple in the British Empire. 

Thus do great things come from humble beginnings, 
and that which at first might seem beyond the abili- 
ties of a few humble people opens to greater things 
when acted upon with faith in God and a desire to 
build his kingdom on the earth. And how beautiful 
upon the hills and the open prairies is the memory of 
those who came because God directed them and 
blessed their efforts for good. 

Canadians are proud of their heritage and wish the 
world to know of the choice land they occupy, with 
its riches and vast, untapped opportunities. From 
east, west, north, and south comes the message that 
Canada has come of age, is celebrating the event, and 
is asking the world to join with it in this centennial 
celebration. O 

July 1967 

Lest We Forget 

Deseret Alphabet 

oie -j set ; 

1+0 'i 

S 0-ftSt 


By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 

Je si 





Improvement Era 

• From a storage area of the Church Historian's 
Office in May 1967, a package of papers was un- 
wrapped and found to be manuscript copies in the 
Deseret Alphabet of the Bible, the Doctrine and 
Covenants, Deseret Phonetic Speller, and the Cate- 
chism by John Jaques. The papers, ready for the 
printer, had lain undisturbed for so long that their 
very existence had been forgotten. 

The phonetic Deseret Alphabet was but one of 
several pioneer experiments that endeavored to make 
life easier and better on the frontier. 

"The Board of Regents [of the University of 
Deseret], in company with the Governor and heads 
of departments have adopted a new alphabet, con- 
sisting of 38 characters . . . with the sanguine hope 
of simplifying the [written] English language." 

This announcement in the Deseret News of January 
19, 1854, went on to say: 

"In the new alphabet every letter has a fixed and 
unalterable sound and every word is spelled with refer- 
ence to given sounds." 

The alphabet, formed by a committee of educators 
and churchmen, is believed to have been largely the 
work of George D. Watts, whose shorthand ability en- 
abled him to record many of the sermons delivered 
in pioneer Utah. Of the 38 characters from the old 
alphabet, only the letters C, D, L, O, P, S, and W were 
retained, each to be assigned new sounds. 

Years advanced, and the people moved temporarily 
south with the approach of Johnston's Army. After 
their return, Wilford Woodruff discussed the matter 
with President Brigham Young on November 20, 1858, 
and determined that the material previously compiled 
was lost. The President advised that Brother Wood- 
ruff contact Brother Watt and start again. That 
November 27 some printing in the Deseret Alphabet 
was done, using type ordered from St. Louis. 

The superiority of the alphabet was agreed upon in 
a meeting on January 23, 1859, but it was also stated 

that supplying books in the alphabet to the schools of 
the Territory would cost a million dollars. The deci- 
sion was made to continue using books written in 
conventional English for a while. 

The first part of the Sermon on the Mount in the 
Deseret Alphabet appeared in the Deseret News of 
February 16, 1859. Articles in that medium were 
printed in the paper almost every week until May 
1860. Dissatisfaction with the type and contents of 
proposed schoolbooks slowed down the project. Some 
Church records during the 1859-69 decade were in- 
scribed in the Deseret Alphabet. The schoolbook 
Deseret First Book was printed by the Deseret News 
in 1868, followed by Deseret Second Book. The Book 
of Mormon from First Nephi through the Words of 
Mormon and later the complete Book of Mormon 
were printed by Russell Brothers of New York in 1868 
for the Church. 

The wonderful dream of easier written communica- 
tion, by pen and by print, did not materialize in 
practice. Some have jested that a page of the printed 
Deseret Alphabet could be mistaken for a Turkish tax 
list. Others have erroneously charged that its purpose 
was to send secret instructions. With the completion 
of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, reading and 
writing materials, as well as everything else, became 
more readily available to Utah, ending her isolation. 

Children who first learned their letters in the 
Deseret Alphabet, and who were later required to 
learn them anew in English after the plan was dropped, 
reaped a lifetime of difficulty in remembering that 
many words require the addition of silent letters as 
the words are spelled out. 

The Deseret Alphabet was a phonetic attempt to 
simplify the writing of the English language. It was 
not a spoken tongue. Its purpose was to aid the Utah 
schoolchild, as well as his foreign-born neighbor, in 
acquiring proficiency in reading and writing the lan- 
guage of the land. O 

Albert L. Zobell, Jr., left, 
Earl E. Olson, assistant Church 
historian, compare manuscript 
in Deseret Alphabet with 
printed page. 

July 1967 


":■:■■, :■; 

The Era Asks 

Sketch of Nauvoo by John Schroeder found on an 1859 map of Hancock County. At that 
time Nauvoo was occupied by many French Icarians, German-Swiss settlers. 

Nauvoo Restoration 

Dr. J. LeRoy 

Q — Briefly, what is Nauvoo resto- 
ration all about? 

A — Nauvoo Restoration, Incorp- 
orated, is a non-profit corporation 
sponsored by the Church for the 
acquisition, preservation, and resto- 
ration of part of the old city of 
Nauvoo, Illinois, where the Saints 
lived before the westward migra- 
tion. We hope to provide an 
authentic physical environment for 
renewed public interest in Nauvoo. 
Plans also call for the development 
of landmarks and other features of 
historic interest along the Mormon 
trail and other sites of Church his- 
torical interest. 

The members of the board of 
trustees are Harold P. Fabian, A. 
Hamer Reiser, President Thorpe B. 

Ever since his undergraduate years as a medical student in Chicago, 
from where he often journeyed to Nauvoo, Dr. J. LeRoy Kimball has 
nurtured hopes of restoring the once beautiful Nauvoo as a monument 
to the Prophet Joseph Smith and the Church. In 1954 he acquired the 
house of Heber C. Kimball, his great-grandfather, and his personal 
project soon became of Church-wide interest. Under assignment from 
the First Presidency, Brother Kimball is now president and chairman 
of the board of Nauvoo Restoration, Incorporated. 

Isaacson, and I, all of Salt Lake 
City; David M. Kennedy of Chi- 
cago, Illinois; J. Willard Marriott 
of Washington, D.C.; and A. Edwin 
Kendrew of Colonial Williamsburg, 

Q — How much of the old Nauvoo 
have you been able to acquire? 
A — Presently we have about 90 
percent of the property that the 
First Presidency determined was of 
paramount historical importance. 
Q — Are there many structures re- 
maining today that were built by 
Latter-day Saints? 
A — This is one of the remarkable 
features of Nauvoo— it is truly a 
great historical city. There are 
about 40 original homes of the 
Saints; some are not in perfect con- 

dition, and some have only the 
original foundations. The homes of 
Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, 
Wilford Woodruff, Winslow Farr, 
Orson Hyde, James Ivins-Elias 
Smith, Erastus Snow, Nathaniel 
Ashby, Jonathan Browning, Joseph 
B. Noble, David Yearsley, Joseph 
W. Coolidge, and the Times and 
Seasons building are all in good 

Q — What kind of work do you en- 
gage in after acquisition of prop- 

A — Much of our work at present is 
in the historical and archaeo- 
logical areas. The historical re- 
search is headed by Dr. T. Edgar 
Lyon, one of the Church's promi- 
nent historians. 


Improvement Era 





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July Era '67 

Before we engage in any restora- 
tion of property, we need to know 
who lived there, when and for how 
long, and the original style, mate- 
rial, and structure of the building. 
We need to know the kinds of 
utensils, tools, furniture, and cloth- 
ing that were used in the home. 
This kind of information entails 
painstaking research into old 
diaries, books, notes, microfilms, 
letters, pictures, and drawings from 
all possible sources. 

Dr. Lyon is constantly engaged 
in uncovering new information per- 
taining to Nauvoo. Assisting us is 
Rowena Miller, who has made a 
study of property ownership at 
Nauvoo and has been able to place 
the dates and sites of occupancy of 
about 9,000 of the 12,000 people 
who lived there. 

Q — How is information such as 
this obtained? 

A — Through detailed work in dia- 
ries, county tax records, and the 
like. For example, several years ago 
we contacted officials of the Han- 
cock County courthouse, hoping to 
find old records. We were informed 
that shortly after World War I they 
had burned all records before 1850, 
but the Nauvoo attorney, Preston 
W. Kimball, came to us with tax 
records for 1840, 1842, and 1850, 
which he had saved from destruc- 
tion. Also, the custodian of the 
courthouse and Dr. Lyon, on a 
search for additional records, went 
into the attic, and between some 
ceiling joists were found the tax col- 
lector's reports from 1846 to 1849. 
This has helped greatly. 
Q — How do you go about furnish- 
ing a restored house? 
A — We first do extensive research 
to learn what was in the house. 
Then we contact descendants— or 
hope they contact us— and, if pos- 
sible, gather from them original 
household materials. If we are 
unable to find the actual furnish- 
ings, we acquire authentic items of 
the period. 

Q — Will you rebuild houses that 
are now nothing more than founda- 

A — Yes. One role of our architect 
is to recreate these houses as they 
once were. We have many pic- 
tures and drawings of houses, 
shops, and other buildings of 

It is not contemplated that all 
of the houses still standing be 
restored as museums or exhibition 
houses, but they are to be restored 
at least as to the exterior to form 
the background of a section of the 
city that will be representative of 
the City of Nauvoo as a whole. 

We plan to rebuild the Seventies 
Hall and shops of tanners, black- 
smiths, wheelwrights, wagon mak- 
ers, bakers, apothecary, general 
stores, and some of the more inter- 
esting and important of the trades 
that were in Nauvoo in the 
Prophet's time. We know the 
actual location of most of the 
shops and have photographs of 
some. We have a committee o\ 
experts and authorities whose role 
is to see that everything is done 

Q — Part of Nauvoo, including sev- 
eral homes, is owned by the 
Reorganized Church, those mem- 
bers who decided to break away 
from Brigham Young and the 
westward movement and remain in 
the Midwest. How does this affect 
your work? 

A — The Reorganized Church owns 
about 40 acres on which are some 
historic buildings— the Mansion 
House, the Homestead, the founda- 
tion of the Joseph Smith Store, and 
a remnant of the Nauvoo House. 
Actually, the Nauvoo House, in- 
tended to be a large hotel, was 
never finished, because of the 

Q — What are the plans for the 
Nauvoo Temple block? 
A — This has not been decided yet. 
One suggestion is to partially re- 
store it, perhaps rebuilding only a 

corner of the building to the tower 
base. This will allow people to get 
an idea of the temple's grandeur, 
and permit them to climb to the top 
and see the beautiful view of the 
Missisippi River and the country- 
side about which so many visitors 
as well as the Saints wrote. The 
temple story is part of our historic 

Q — In the days of the Saints, 
Mississippi River traffic played an 
important part. Do you have any 
plans concerning the river? 
A — The river provides some won- 
derful possibilities. Only a short 
time ago the governor of Illinois 
led a flotilla down the river, point- 
ing up the tourist potential for the 

Master bedroom of Kimball home. Most 
furnishings are antique. 

Heber C. Kimball home before restoration 
and refurnishing were begun. 

Kimball home as it now stands, restored 
and open to visitors. 


Going places 
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For extra pleasure, 
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Compiled by Llewelyn 
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The sermons and writ- 
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The sweep of Biblical 
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David to Christ. 



By Paul H. Dunn 

Ten essential traits of 
leadership with examples 
of each. 




By Richard Vetterli 

Speaks out to support 
the principles on which 
our Republic was founded. 



Compiled by R. Wayne 

Excerpts from BYU de- 
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range of subjects. 



By Dr. Henry Eyring 

Shows how true religion 
and true science can 
function in complete 



By Sterling W. Sill 

The secret of worldly 
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By Duane S. Crowther 

Knowledge of the future 
as revealed by ancient 
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By Gordon T. Allred 

A new LDS novel with a 
story of profound spirit- 
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11. MELVIN J. 
BALLARD, Crusader 
for Righteousness 

The interesting and in- 
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By Wendell J. Ashton 

Insights into lives of 
ordinary men who per- 
formed outstanding ac- 


12. J. GOLDEN 

By Claude Richards 

The biography of a faith- 
ful and courageous 
Latter-day Saint. 



July 1967 


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many people who own boats. In 
the days of Nauvoo, the Saints 
owned and used several paddle 
steamers and "horse boats." The 
river steamers were the Maid of 
Iowa and the steamboat Nauvoo. 
We hope to duplicate these boats 
and provide short river trips for 
those wishing enjoyable recreation 
and a flavor of the past. 

The Saints also had a ferry, 
which we plan to reestablish. At 
the present time the ferry nearest 
Nauvoo is about 100 miles away, 
and it is surprising the number of 
tourists who want the unique thrill 
of being ferried across the river. In 
terms of potential use, our shore- 
line property extends three miles 
and has endless possibilities. 

Q — Will the city be alive with the 
flavor of the past, or will it be a 
silent city, more like a museum? 

A — The great potential of Nauvoo 
lies in giving life to the city. Those 
restored houses not used as 
museums or exhibition houses will 
be occupied as residences. We also 
want to fill the shops with artisans 
who would work at the various 
trades performed over a century 
ago. Some of the shops would be 
self-supporting and help maintain 
the cost of the restoration project. 
We envision not only recreating 
part of the town as it once was, but 
also supplying guides to show tour- 
ists through the homes and tell 
the story of the Mormons who 
lived there and their way of life. 

Q — Would you provide entertain- 
ment also? 

A — There are many possibilities 
here, ranging from parading a Nau- 
voo Legion to a dramatic produc- 
tion telling the story of Nauvoo. 
There is a natural amphitheater 
down by the river, one that could 
easily seat thousands of people. 
We hope to have a dramatic- 
musical production written that 
will appeal to tourists and portray 
the dramatic story of the rise and 
fall of Nauvoo. 

Q — To what extent will Nauvoo be 
a missionary tool in terms of what 
is done at Temple Square or what 
was done at the New York World's 

A — The role of the Church in re- 
storing Nauvoo envisions a differ- 
ent approach to missionary work. 
Our guide service is one that tourists 
will find informative, educational, 
and inspiring, but also one that 
those who do not desire a prose- 
lyting approach will find accept- 
able. Nauvoo will be a historical 
place where people will first look 
and then possibly listen to the gos- 
pel message. 

The Church will have a center 
located in the city where visitors 
will be able to talk to missionaries, 
discuss doctrinal questions, and 
receive other information. The 
guides in Nauvoo are fine, educated 
college students, most of whom 
have had missionary experience. 
They tell the historical story of 
Nauvoo— of the people who lived 
there, their beliefs, and what they 
did— in a fashion that is attractive 
to tourists. 

We have a referral service for 
those who wish to learn more about 
the Church. We know from past 
experience that a good percentage 
of tourists want to learn more, and 
many have been converted. Nu- 
merous visitors have come back 
again and again. 

Q — What is the tourist potential of 

A — Last year more than 97,000 
people registered at our informa- 
tion center and exhibition houses, 
and we expect about 120,000 regis- 
trations this year. By 1974 our 
estimates show that a minimum of 
400,000 people per year will visit 
us. The potential is remarkable. 
You see, within half a day's drive 
from Nauvoo live 17 million people. 
Within 500 miles there are 50 mil- 
lion people. 

Another fact pertaining to our 
tourist potential is our strategic 
location in a section already having 

Improvement Era 

great historic attraction. Ninety- 
eight miles to the southeast is New 
Salem, home of Abraham Lincoln. 
The State of Illinois has rebuilt it, 
and it is most interesting to com- 
pare New Salem's dusty streets and 
log cabins with Nauvoo's well- 
planned community and gracious 
homes. Seventy-five miles down the 
river is Hannibal, Missouri, home 
of Mark Twain. Thus, within a 
day's drive are areas pertaining to 
Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, 
and the Mormons. What an attrac- 
tive area for tourists! 

Q — What will visitors to Nauvoo 
see this year? 

A — They will view Nauvoo in its 
beautiful setting and visit the 
Heber C. Kimball and Ivins-Smith 
houses, the Times and Seasons 
building, and, we hope, the Wilford 
Woodruff and Brigham Young 
houses. Our guides, numbering 
about 30, will take visitors on tours 
of the city. A film on Nauvoo is 
shown at the Nauvoo Restoration 
Information Center, and there is 
an interesting exhibit of artifacts at 
the center. Even now it is a most 
worthwhile experience and one that 
is gaining increasing recognition in 
the Midwest. 

Q — Are sleeping accommodations 

A — Although Nauvoo has very lim- 
ited tourist accommodations, visi- 
tors find that within 25 miles there 
are many first-class tourist accom- 
modations. If any wish to write to 
us at Nauvoo Restoration, Nauvoo, 
Illinois, we will be happy to help 
arrange accommodations. In the 
near future we hope to establish 
our own motel-hotel accommoda- 
tions. There is also a state park in 
Nauvoo, and for a small fee one 
may camp overnight. 

Q — How do you personally feel 
about the project? 

A — I have two thoughts I wish to 
share. First, I want all Latter-dav 
Saints to know that the Church 

July 1967 

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For members, Mr. Mullen's account of the activities 
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An artist's retouched work of a 
daguerreotype of Nauvoo Temple. 

Aerial view shows old streets of Nauvoo, 
present buildings, and community's three- 
sided border by Mississippi River. 


Home of Wilford Woodruff, fourth Church 
President, is being restored and refurnished. 

is not committing itself to some- 
thing that is going to involve a 
fantastic outlay of money. This 
complete restoration project is 
such that we could stop at any 
particular phase of our ten-phase 
developmental program and not be 
the loser. Each phase can stand 
on its own and to some degree 
satisfy visitors. 

Second, I really get enthusiastic 
about the potential of Nauvoo— and 
the amazing thing is, so do all of 
the experts who learn of our 
project or from whom we've asked 
help. You see, the great story of 
Nauvoo has never really been told, 
not even by Latter-day Saints. The 
Mormon migration is the only 
migration in which an entire com- 
munity moved itself and its indus- 
tries, institutions, religion, schools, 
and political and cultural concepts 
to the Far West. It is the onlv 
American migration that is a two- 
way road; that is, we repeatedly 
sent missionaries back across the 
plains to get our people. While 
everyone else headed west basically 

"The Homestead" was Nauvoo home of 
Prophet Joseph Smith from 1839 to August 

for reasons of financial speculation, 
the Mormons took their faith, their 
families, their poor, and their sick 
and established a community that 
is entirely self-supporting. 

For many years Utah served as 
the mid-American supply point for 
those going on to Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. The story has been told from 
the point of view of the Church, 
but its place in American history 
and its great contribution to the 
settlement of western United States 
has never been told adequately. 
This is one reason so many non- 
Mormons are enthusiastic about it. 

Nauvoo is a great center from 
which to tell many stories: the 
Mormon Nauvoo story, the migra- 
tion story of all peoples who headed 
westward, the Mississippi River 
traffic and merchandising story, 
and the always enjoyable experi- 
ence of seeing how people of 
another time lived. In years to 
come I sincerely believe Nauvoo 
will be one of the great historical 
attractions in America and a monu- 
ment to the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

Improvement Era 


In-depth coverage of KSL news extended to Viet Nam as KSL, 
home of radio brought you a new insight into world affairs 
through the eyes of young men serving there. Daily interviews 
with men from mountain America were made in villages, hospital 
zones, aircraft carriers, anywhere those young men serve. Reports 

were rushed to Broadcast House daily to give you the most com- 
plete and total local coverage ever heard on the Viet Nam story. 
Covering these history-shaping events for KSL were top newsmen 
Dick Nourse and Larry Finnegan. No wonder KSL, home of radio 
is mountain America's "number one" news station! 

typical of Viet Nam and the 
action reported by KSL news- 
men, Larry Finnegan and Dick 
Nourse, pictured on left as they 
leave for Far East. 

BELOW: Able and efficient 
KSL news director, Ted Cap- 
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nerve center for all KSL news. 

Mountain America turns to KSL news for the facts! 

DIAL 1160 

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No matter what the story, when or where it happens, you hear Broadcast House 

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50,000 watt CBS clear channel 
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Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 

home of radio 

• From Santiago, Chile, to Anchor- 
age, Alaska; Inverclyde, Scotland, 
to Concord, California; Melbourne, 
Australia, to Washington, D.C.— 
thousands of girls of MIA age are 
going to camp this summer. About 
40,000 are expected to participate 
in the YWMIA girls' camp program, 
sleeping out in tents and sleeping 

bags, under the stars and under 
shelters, at Church-owned camps 
and at forest service camps. 

Wherever you find young Latter- 
day Saint girls, you'll find them 
joining together in this great pro- 
gram of sisterhood and fellowship. 

Camping for girls has been part 
of the YWMIA program for more 

Girls and leaders from Salt Lake area hike 
along rocky mountain trail. 

than half a century, since the Lib- 
erty Stake of Salt Lake City held 
the first such encampment in the 
summer of 1912. 

The site of that first camp was 
on the banks of Big Cottonwood 
stream, on a farm in Murray, some 
ten miles south of Salt Lake City. 
To get to the camp, the girls rode 
the streetcar to Murray, where they 
were met by a hayrack that carried 
bedding and bags to the camp site 
a mile away, while the girls and 
their leaders followed on foot. The 
camp had a large sleeping room, 
boarded halfway to the roof and 
screened with wire netting the 
other halfway, with cots and mat- 
tresses for twelve. Supplies were 
kept in large boxes, and all food 
was cooked in the open, over a 
campfire. Activities at this first 
camp included wading and swim- 
ming in the stream, nature walks 
and nature study, and campfire 
programs. During the summer of 
1912, 82 girls and 15 leaders en- 
joyed the camp. 

As the success of Liberty Glen 
became known, the general board 
began encouraging other stakes to 
develop an adequate summer pro- 
gram "to give added protection to 
young people from evil tendencies 
incident to war conditions," and 
thus the summer camp program 
was begun. Among the pioneer 
camps were those established at 
Brighton, near Salt Lake City; 
Logan Canyon, Provo Canyon, 
Bear Lake, Pocatello, Ogden, and 
other areas along the Wasatch 
Mountain front in Utah and Idaho. 
By 1925 more than 3,000 girls were 
attending the camps, a number that 
increased to more than 17,000 in 
1954. Today, more than twice as 
many girls are now enjoying the 
camping experience, with 38,432 
attending in 1966, including 873 


Improvement Era 

For many stakes and missions, 
today's camp facilities are a far 
cry from the simple, rustic Liberty 
Glen camp. Thirty camps are now 
owned by stakes or through joint 
stake effort. In other areas, estab- 
lished camp facilities owned by 
such groups as the Girl Scouts, 
YWCA, Jewish youth organiza- 
tions, and other civic groups are 
rented. Many stakes enjoy primi- 
tive camping in national forests or 
by permission on private property. 

In Australia the girls camp in 
tents on farm and ranch land owned 
by members of the Church. In 
England, a beautiful lodge set on 
40 acres of green fields and playing 
grounds provides the setting for 
leadership weeks for the girls. In 
Santiago, Chile, the camp site is 
along a river running through a 
farm located near groves of 
eucalyptus trees. Girls from Rex- 
burg, Idaho, camp at the Rock 
Creek LDS Girls Camp adjacent 
to Yellowstone National Park, while 
those from the San Fernando Val- 
ley of California go to primitive 
areas of the High Sierra mountains. 

One aspect of girls' camping in 
the Church today that has per- 
haps given greater impetus and 
meaning to the program is the 
Campcrafter Certification program, 
begun in 1963. This program pro- 
vides four levels of achievement, 
with recognition for each level. A 
girl who has n astered all four 
levels of achievement should be 
prepared to take care ox herself and 
others in life out of doors as well 
as experiencing an increase in her 
own leadership ability and prepar- 
ing her for future roles as a home- 
maker and a mother. 

Under the certification program 
( which in England and Australia is 
called a "qualification" program, 
since in those countries to be 
"certified" means being committed 

Cookout over an open fire attracts girls at 
lake shore camp in Australia. 

to a mental institution!), first-year 
campers may become "Yearlings" 
when they have mastered fourteen 
requirements. These include help- 
ing to plan a hike and a cookout, 
knowing how to dress for a hike 
and the rules for hiking, building a 
fire, sharpening a knife, tying knots, 
cooking out of doors, developing a 
nature craft, and learning basic 
first-aid techniques. 

The second year a girl may work 
toward the "Mountaineer" level by 
learning such things as fire safety 
and conservation regulations, going 
on an all- day hike, preparing meals 
by using various outdoor cooking 
methods, lashing, sharpening and 
using an ax, building four types of 
fires, demonstrating knowledge of 
more advanced first-aid skills, and 
leading the group in special assign- 

To become an "Inspirator" at the- 
end of her third year, she con- 
tinues to study conservation, learns 
new cooking techniques and how 
to use a compass and map and 
trail markings, demonstrates a 
working knowledge of first aid by 
teaching it to younger girls, assists 
as a junior counselor, and helps 
teach camp skills to others. 

The fourth level is "Adventurer," 
for which girls help plan and go on 
a pack-in trip for two or three days, 
take a five-mile cross-country hike, 
pitch a tent, plan and cook outdoor 
meals, make lashed camp items, 
participate in campfire programs, 
and perform other leadership roles. 

Only those campers who have 
themselves been certified through 
special workshops or actual camp- 
ing experience may certify other 
campers. Since the program was 
introduced, devoted and deter- 
mined leaders fi >n throughout the 
Church have sacrificed to get the 
proper certification so they could 
take the program to their girls. 

Campers at San Fernando, California, 
(above) weigh in with sleeping bags and 
camp gear. Flagstaff (Arizona) Stake camp- 
ers (below) pitch tents in the forest. 

Sister Alvie M. Pemberton of 
Victoria, Australia, a mission 
YWMIA supervisor, saved for ten 
years in order to be able to travel 
to Utah for June Conference. The 
general board camp committee 
heard she was coming and urged 
her to study beforehand so she 

July 1967 


Campfire area (above; at Camp Liahona, Concord, California, is set in beautiful forest. 
Campers from Anchorage, Alaska, travel by train (below, left), then hike in to Camp 
La Da Sa, where hearty meals prepared in the open (right) await them. 

could become certified at a post- 
conference clinic. 

"Being a grandmother of two, 
and feeling my age," she said, "I 
did not really believe I could do it. 
However, with some personal ef- 
fort, plus a lot of prodding and 
pushing from the camp committee, 

I did succeed in becoming certi- 
fied for the entire four years. Upon 
my return to Australia, I was full 
of enthusiasm and could not get 
the program going soon enough." 
Sister Pemberton set up clinics 
in the stakes and missions of Aus- 
tralia, and now there are more than 

Girls' camping is a popular MIA activity 

world — in England, 

Weber (Ogden, Utah) Stake girls gather around campfire 
for traditional Indian ceremony. 

50 leaders who have at least one 
level of certification, and half a 
dozen who have completed the 
entire four-year program. 

The success of the Campcrafter 
Certification program is attested to 
by leaders throughout the world, 
whose reports include these state- 
ments: "The program has provided 
the direction for camp program- 
ming." "We have never made the 
program mandatory, but we have 
made it so appealing that we have 
never had one girl refuse to par- 
ticipate." "It has reactivated former 
inactive girls, brought nonmembers 
into closer contact with the Church 
program, and provided leaders with 
opportunities to get closer to their 
girls than is possible at any other 
time." "The outstanding success of 
the program in our region is that it 
is producing outstanding leaders." 

To prepare their counselors for 
teaching the skills in the Camp- 
crafter program, camp directors 
often hold special workshops and 
outings prior to the camp season. 
In the Central States Mission, a 
certification campout for district 
executives and sports-camp direc- 
tors was held in the summer of 1966 
in the wooded area adjoining the 
mission home at Independence, 
Missouri. This site is part of the 
area that has been dedicated for the 
building of the temple in Zion, 
Jackson County, Missouri. 

Priesthood guidance has been a 
big factor in the success of girls 
camping in the Church. The gen- 
eral board recommends that at 
least one member of the priesthood 
go to camp with each group. This 
person is available to assist with 
long hikes, building and repairing 
camp equipment, protection, and 
giving fatherly advice. 

The Concord (California) Stake 
reports outstanding priesthood sup- 
port: "We have a minimum of five 


Improvement Era 

all over the 

Australia, the United States, Chile — wherever the Church is found. 

members of the priesthood with 
us for the full seven days, and we 
have a virtual waiting list of men 
who would like to go. When the 
Adventurers go out for three days, 
two priesthood members go with 
them; another goes with the In- 
spirators on their overnight hike; 
and two are left in camp at all 
times. These men form their own 
unit and not only provide the heavy 
labor for camp but also participate 
in our campfire programs, Sunday 
services, and testimony meetings. 
We can also testify that through 
the power of the priesthood many 
girls and leaders have been healed." 

While the Campcrafter Certifica- 
tion program provides direction for 
much of the camping activity, other 
activities are also provided, includ- 
ing softball, volleyball, hiking, 
archery, swimming, boating, and 
other outdoor sports. In England 
and Australia, heavy emphasis is 
given to the sports program, par- 
ticularly track and field events. 

Girls who are interested in arts 
and crafts are taught how to make 
beautiful and useful articles from 
flowers, leaves, nuts, wood, and 
other natural materials found in the 
camp area. Girls at the Flagstaff 
( Arizona ) Stake camp make leather 
purses to wear on their belts when 
they hike to carry first-aid equip- 
ment, knife, compass, and matches. 
New Jersey Stake girls enjoy mak- 
ing curler bags and tile mosaics. 

The length of stay for girls who 
attend MIA camps ranges from one 
day to a full week. Those who stay 
the full week plan for special Sun- 
day activities in keeping with the 
Sabbath, usually beginning with 
Sunday School or a testimony meet- 
ing, then discussion groups and 
nature study in the afternoon, sac- 
rament meeting in the early 
evening, followed by a fireside 
program. One stake reports that 

on Saturday evening the entire 
stake presidency and bishoprics, as 
well as high councilors and other 
priesthood leaders, arrive to stay 
overnight and direct the Sunday 
services. "The girls are really im- 
pressed when the sacrament is ad- 
ministered and passed by their 
bishops," their camp director 

During the week the girls may 
participate in MIA programs, gos- 
pel discussions, and testimony 
meetings. A testimony meeting the 
last morning of camp is traditional 
in many areas, with the girls aris- 
ing early to go to an outdoor area 
for sunrise services. There they 
can express their feelings in settings 
that are often reminiscent of the 
Sacred Grove where the young 
Joseph Smith also sought the Lord. 
For many girls, this is the first 
opportunity they have taken to 
bear their testimony. 

"Testimony meeting in the primi- 
tive camps is wholesome, with the 
girls showing a real appreciation 
for their Heavenly Father," said 
one high councilor from the San 
Fernando (California) region. 

"The most faith-promoting event 
we have is our fast and testimony 
meeting. We have had our non- 
members also bear their testimonies 
and become active in the Church 
through the camp program," ac- 
cording to the Flagstaff Stake camp 

"One of our most successful 
events is our early morning testi- 
mony meeting," said the Mt. Nebo 
(Payson, Utah) Stake director. 
"The setting of our camp in a 
meadow, completely surrounded 
by mountains, is just beautiful. It 
seems that early in the morning, out 
of doors, the atmosphere is excep- 
tionally quiet and serene. With 
the sun just coming up over the 
mountains and everything so beau- 

tiful, no one can doubt the 
existence of a Father in heaven." 

Conversions of nonmember girls 
who have become fellowshipped 
through the YWMIA girls' camp 
program are often reported. Con- 
cord (California) Stake reports at 
least two baptisms each year as a 
result of the camping program. In 
the Alaska Stake, where the girls 
travel 70 miles from Anchorage to 
a beautiful campsite, two young 
girls were converted to the Church 
through camping last year, and 
their parents were also recently 

A young girl in Mt. Nebo Stake 
completed the camping program 
and was baptized a few months 
later. Her father, a nonmember, 
praised the certification program 
as one of the truly worthwhile pro- 
grams of the Church. This stake 
also encourages mothers to go to 
camp with their daughters and 
serve as counselors. On one three- 
day pack-in trip were two mother 
and daughter teams who "set an 
example of love that can exist and 
become stronger through this in- 
spiring association in the out of 

Many faith-promoting stories are 
told in each stake and mission each 
year as a result of the camp pro- 
gram. Illustrative of this is the 
experience reported by the Sydney 
(Australia) Stake last year. The 
girls had planned a special fireside 
but were advised to cancel it be- 
cause of a violent storm approach- 
ing. The camp director, Sister 
Bronwen Jones, knowing how im- 
portant the program was to the 
girls, knelt in prayer with her 
mother (who was a counselor) to 
ask her Heavenly Father's help. 

Their prayer was answered. The 
program was presented in dry 
weather to the 64 girls in the camp 
as well as 50 visitors who were 

July 1967 


camping in the vicinity. Sister 
Jones said later, "Can you imagine 
the thrill it was to be able to make 
known our principles and standards 
to these very interested visitors? I 
don't believe I have ever felt so 
lifted up by the Spirit as when our 
girls sang praises to their Heavenly 
Father, bore testimony to the truth- 
fulness of the gospel, and stated 

their willingness to conform to the 
standards of the Church. Imme- 
diately after the closing prayer, the 
rain began to pour down, and the 
storm broke. During that long 
night of patrolling for the safety 
and comfort of the girls, we were 
warmed by the quiet knowledge 
that we had asked in faith and 
our prayer had been answered." 

Yes, the YWMIA girls camp 
program is one of great spirituality 
and growth for thousands of Latter- 
day Saint girls. Through it they 
learn to work together, to play 
together, to live together. Through 
it a great reservoir of leadership 
strength is developed, strength 
that will benefit the Church in 
coming years. Through it great 

An Era reprint on the spirit of being a missionary — 

The "Mormon" missionary is unique among those who go out to 
battle for a cause. He is untrained, according to man-made standards, 
for the work he is to do. He comes out from his daily labors on the farm, 
in the shop, in the university, from any and every honorable pursuit, 
learned and unlearned, wealthy and poor, to teach in the mission field 
that which he believes to be true, in the language and with the means 
that God has given him. His weapon and defense is truth, humbly used, 
and truth is always invincible. 

It is even more remarkable in these days that the missionary labors 
without material reward. He receives no remuneration for his service, 
and while in the mission field, he must provide at his own expense for 
his support. When his missionary labors are over he returns to his daily 
tasks, his honest toil, to earn his living as before, poorer perhaps in 
this world's goods, but with the inivard satisfaction that comes to him 
who renders obedience to the Lord. He was divinely called into the 
mission field; he will be divinely rewarded! He knows that giving is the 
way to receiving. The missionary trusts the Lord. That gives him more 
than mortal power. 

The "Mormon" missionary believes sincerely, indeed, he knows, that 
his message is the priceless gift of undoubted truth, God made and 
revealed, which has the power, if used, to enrich mankind beyond measure 
in daily happiness on earth and in the- life hereafter. Such certain knowl- 
edge gives him courage and makes his labors joyful. He meets the issues 
of the day with a song in his heart. 

Moreover, he understands that the gospel message is for all the 
children of men, not for a favored few; and he knows that, according 
to the eternal order, those who have must give, that truth must be shared 
else it dies, that out of unselfish service comes unbounded joy. So he 
rejoices to have the privilege of helping his fellowmen find and tread 
the path to daily happiness. Such spiritual forces impel and uphold 
the missionary. 

There is no parallel in the whole history of mankind to this missionary 
system. Untrained men have often spoken for righteousness ; others have 
sacrificed for their convictions ; but there is no record of a whole people 


Improvement Era 

spirituality, humility, and love for 
the Lord are developed and 

The feelings of many thousands 
of devoted MIA camp directors and 
counselors is beautifully summed 
up by Sister Effie Davenport of 
North Rexburg ( Idaho ) Stake, who 
writes : "When I look back at some 
of the resistance from our leaders 

and girls when we began our pro- 
gram, and how we kept our goals 
in sight, knowing that they would 
come around— and now see the 
zest, love, and growth of all of us, 
I know it's been worthwhile! Many 
times I have prayed to my Father 
in heaven for guidance about 
problems confronting us. I know 
that he has helped us!" • 

as timely today as it was 31 years ago. 

who for more than a century, with- 
out diminution of zeal, as a body and 
continuously, have given such service 
under every sun, who have kept be- 
fore the eyes of men the eternal fire 
of truth upon the altar of sacrifice. 
The cost in time and money has been 
tremendously great. The sacrifices 
of fathers, mothers, wives, brothers, 
and sisters, to make the mission of a 
loved one possible, form a noble and 
beautifully tender chapter in the 
history of mankind. 

Out of the sacrifices made by the 
Latter-day Saints to spread the per- 
fect doctrine of truth among mankind 
have come great blessings. Hundreds 
of thousands of honest seekers after 
truth have entered the Church of 
Christ, into a happier way of life. 
Every family which has sent a mem- 
ber into the mission field has been 
spiritually enriched thereby. Every 
missionary has profited personally by 
the experience. Young men and 
women sent into the field to battle 
for the cause of the Lord have come 
back as men and women ready to cope 
with the day's problems. . . . Whoever 
serves the Lord prospers. It should 
be the ambition of the youth of Zion 
to share in the profitable enterprise 
known as a mission. — John A. Widt- 
soe, October 1936 Improvement Era. 

July 1967 

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& 1Y 



• I noticed the anxiousness in 
Mother's voice as she called us in 
from the yard. When the five of us 
had reached the back steps she 
scolded us for playing in the mud 
around the pump. The door that 
separated the kitchen from the 
house was barred, and we sensed 
what was coming. Billy and Quin- 
tus were sent to draw water, and I 
began to undress the two little 
ones, Noannie and Ophie. Mother 
was hastily spreading rugs on the 
floor to catch the spatters, when 
Ophie started to whine. Whisps of 
stray hair curled on Mother's face, 
damp with perspiration. She an- 
swered him impatiently. 

"Your Uncle Phillip and his new 
bride are here a day early, and are 
sittin' in the parlor. And you, young 
man, are simply caked with mud! 
Your Aunt Minah has never met 
you children, and I want you to 
look your best. Her girl's as old 
as you, Carrie," she said to me, 
her good humor returning. I felt 
a catch of excitement. For weeks I 
had tried to imagine what the new 
cousin would be like. Would she 
be pretty? Would her hair be as 
long and brown as mine? And how 
would a city girl from way up 
north, coming to a little cotton 
town in Georgia, take to her 
"country" cousins? 

"Mama, what's she like?" I asked. 
"Are Laurie and Aunt Minah Mor- 
mons too?" 

"I told you, hon', I don't know. 
Uncle Phil didn't say. But after 
we've all gotten acquainted, we'll 
see." She began to pin up my pig- 
tails, lowering her voice to me. 
"You know what a good Saint his 
first wife was, God rest the dear 
old soul. But I don't want you 

children asking too many questions, 
you hear?" 

The big tub by the stove was 
filled, and each of us had a quick 
bath, without a change of water, 
and we wriggled into our starched 
clothing. Then five heads of hair 
were brushed and combed. With 
faces shining, and bodies slightly 
stiff, we marched into the parlor. 
Our mother followed, straightening 
her dress and patting her braids 
in place. 

Aunt Minah's small form sat 
rigidly in Mother's rocking chair, 
opposite my father's relaxed bulk. 
Beside her chair stood a lovely 
young girl, slightly taller than I. 
Her long, golden braids hung to 
her waist and were tied with color- 
ful ribbons. She was as fair as I 
was tanned. 

Uncle Phil sat in a straight-back 
chair, his hat on his knee, nervously 
tapping his foot. As he watched 
our little procession he gave us a 
wide grin, and we ran to hug him. 
Uncle Phil had not changed very 

much. His chin overlapped his 
collar, which appeared to be 
choking him, and his auburn mus- 
tache curled on his cheeks like the 
horns on Papa's prize bull. Mother 
introduced us to Aunt Minah and 
Laurie in order of age, starting with 
me: "Carrie Lee, John Quintus, 
William Thomas, Noannie Ann, and 
Theopholis." Aunt Minah's gaze 
lingered on Ophie. His eyes were 
round and bright, and his dark 
curls had been brushed until they 
shined. He timidly tucked his head 
against Mother's skirt, and the 
woman regarded the rest of us 
coolly. She gestured with a slim 

"This is my child," she said, 
"your Cousin Laurie." The girl 
smiled nervously. 

"Here, child, sit down," Mother 
coaxed, and set a leather footstool 
in front of her. After a moment's 
uncertainty Laurie straddled the 
stool, resting her elbows on her 

Papa and Uncle Phil had pulled 

In our starched clothing, 

with hair brushed and 

faces shining, we marched into 

the parlor. 


Improvement Era 


\ I ft 







their chairs up closer to the hearth, 
laughing and talking noisily to each 
other. The womenfolk had to 
speak louder to understand each 
other, and I strained an ear to hear 
both conversations. Aunt Minah 
opened a lace bag and took out her 
crochet needles and ball of thread. 
Mother watched admiringly as 
Aunt Minah's dainty, manicured 
hands waved the needles back and 
forth. I glanced over at Mother's 


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hands, hid in the folds of her skirt. 

"Do you enjoy needle work?" 
Aunt Minah finally asked. 

"No, ma'm . . . that is, I'd love 
to crochet if I had more time. It's 
just that I don't sew for enjoyment 
much now, these children keep me 
so busy!" she said, laughing. "And 
we get behind in our farm work. 
But I do manage to make a dress 
or shirt for them now and then." 

"Ma made the dress I'm wearin' 
now!" Noannie said proudly, hold- 
ing out the skirt by its corners while 
Aunt Minah looked at it. Uncle 
Phil's voice invaded their conversa- 
tion: "How did the crops survive 
that rainy spell?" 

"How long have you lived 
here in MacDonough?" Aunt Minah 
inquired. After Papa had fin- 
ished a siege of loud coughing, 

We took her on a guided tour. 
She saw a "real, live milk cow." 

Mother answered the question: 

"My parents settled here in '68, 
and they helped to build this town. 
Why, it wasn't much more'n a pig 
trail when they came," she said, 

"Not much more'n that today!" 
the other woman said under her 

Cousin Laurie seemed to be en- 
thralled with Uncle Phil's and 
Papa's talk of cattle. As she lis- 
tened her eyes grew round with 

"Mother, I've never seen a cow 
that gives milk," she said quietly. 
My mouth dropped open, and 
Mother smiled at her warmly. 
Ophie thrust his chin in Laurie's 

"You mean you've never seen a 
milk cow?" He gazed at Laurie 
in amazement. This provided an 
opening for me: "Laurie*," I im- 
plored, "wouldn't you like to see 
our cow? Her name's Lady." 
Ophie sucked in his breath with 

"Lady's gonna have a li'l calf 
'fore long, and Pa says I can name 

"What are you going to name 
your calf?" Laurie asked. Ophie 
studied for a moment, for he had 
not really decided on a name yet. 
Then his eyes widened as he an- 
nounced the new name: "Laurie!" 
He gave a satisfied grin. 

Noannie giggled aloud, and I 
tried to stifle my giggles with my 
hand. Ophie, proud of his results, 
joined in with his own explosions. 
Mother shook her head at us, but 
there was a twinkle in her eves. 
Aunt Minah looked annoyed, but I 
didn't care. I wanted to laugh and 
never stop, for the more I saw of 
Aunt Minah's pinched little face 
and the quick movements of her 
pale little hands, the more I found 
it impossible to suppress the laugh- 
ter that seemed to boil up inside 
me. Papa turned and glared at us. 

We grew quiet again; and 


Improvement Era 

Mother, sensing our discomfort, 
suggested that we invite Laurie to 
our room while she visited with 
Aunt Minah. We were happy to 
oblige— to get out of those scratchy 
clothes and tight-feeling shoes. 

I loaned Laurie an outfit of 
mine to change into and hung her 
dress with its countless rows of 
ruffles and dainty lace bodice care- 
fully on a hanger. Then all of us 
took off our shoes and stockings, 
and our toes were free again. 

As we were showing our cousin 
a few of our belongings, I opened 
the drawer to our night table, and 
she saw my Book of Mormon. 
When she asked about it, I ex- 
plained that this book was like the 
Bible. I let her see the signature 
of our Church President, who had 
autographed my book the year he 
tourejl our mission. It was my most 
treasured possession, and I related 
how Joseph Smith came to be a 
Prophet of God like the prophets 
in the days of old. Then I returned 
the book to the drawer. 

Out in the yard, Laurie walked 
up and down the cool ground, gaz- 
ing often at her feet as though she 
seldom saw them. The six of us 
sat in a circle and asked questions. 
We quizzed Laurie about her home 
and life in the big city. She usually 
went to the theater with her par- 
ents, and she went to a "private" 
school attended only by girls. 
Laurie appeared to have a fascinat- 
ing life filled with catered affairs 
and colorful friends, and piano and 
dancing lessons. We pressed her 
for more, but she changed the sub- 
ject by asking to see the farm ani- 
mals. We took her on a guided 
tour of our small farm. She saw a 
"real, live milk cow," and Lady 
donated a dipperful of milk, warm 
and fresh. 

We showed Laurie the old sow 
and her young pigs, and she tried 
to imitate their squeals. Next came 
the rabbit cage, where she gently 
fondled the rabbits, stroking their 

soft, pink ears. She teased the kit- 
tens our old mother cat had left 
in the corn bin, and fed nuts to 
our tame squirrel Oscar, who soon 
made friends with Laurie. 

Billy and Quintus invited her to 
go to the woodshed to see the king 
snake they had captured. When 
she saw Quintus wrap the friendly 
snake around his arm and stroke its 
head, she screamed and even cried 
a little. 

The last stop was the chicken 
yard, where all the hens rushed to 
the fence, expecting a handout. 
Laurie poked her finger through 
the wire and a chicken pecked it. 
Billy brought a pan of corn and let 
her feed the chickens. She laughed 
with delight and stood at the edge 
of the chicken yard, calling sweetly, 
as she threw them fistfuls of corn. 

"I know where there are some 
nice juicy grapes," Quintus told 
her, and we remembered the grape- 
vines. "Over the fence and just 
down that hill," he said, pointing to 
the farthest gate. Laurie shaded 
her eyes. 

"We have to crawl through a 
'bobwire' fence," warned Ophie, 
"and Billy found a rattler there last 
year!" Laurie's expression changed. 

"Hush, Ophie!" Quintus scolded. 
"You know it was already dead 
when he found it!" While Quintus 
was busy trying to reassure Laurie 
that snakes were afraid of people, 
we started to move toward the 

"We'll race to the grapevines, and 
the first one that steps in somethin' 
is a tongue-tied-billy goat!" Noan- 
nie yelled, the words trailing after 
her. The rest of us were in squeal- 
ing pursuit through the chicken 
yard. Laurie hung back, stepping 
with caution. I waited for her 
when I reached the end of the yard, 
and held the wire apart while she 
crawled through. 

The grapes hung full and ripe 
above our heads, and we climbed 
the vines and picked all we could 

eat, and filled our pockets full. We 
ate as we walked, and stopped to 
swing on the oak vines that hung 
low to the ground. We stopped to 
rest on the bank of the creek and 
told ghost stories, occasionally 
glancing warily over our shoulders. 
When the sun began to go down we 
decided to head for home to feed 
the pigs and gather the eggs before 
supper. Laurie had asked to help 
with the egg gathering, and Quintus 
and Billy obligingly put them in 
her skirt as she held tightly to the 

As we reached the back yard we 
smelled biscuits baking and chicken 
frying. We were very tired and 
content to sit quietly around the 
supper table while our parents 
chatted happily with our guests. 
Aunt Minah was seated beside 
Laurie. After the food had been 
blessed she sniffed at Laurie in- 
quiringly. "Laurie," she said softly, 
"go look on the bottoms of your 
feet. I think you've stepped in 

Aunt Minah seemed to have mel- 
lowed a little, and during the meal 
she ate four buttered biscuits. She 
was smiling now, and even had a 
second helping of blackberry cob- 
bler. Afterwards, she politely 
offered to help with the dishes, 
which Mother, of course, refused; 
but Aunt Minah insisted on helping 
to clear the table. (My mother's 
cooking certainly did wonders for 
people! ) 

Before retiring that evening, my 
father asked our guests to kneel 
with us in prayer. Papa asked 
Uncle Phil to lead. It must have 
been a momentous occasion for 
Uncle Phil, for more than likely it 
was the first time he had knelt to 
pray with his new wife and daugh- 
ter. His voice was filled with 
emotion. In the evenings that 
followed, after prayers, Laurie and 
I would take the Book of Mormon 
from the drawer in my night table, 
and I would tell her stories from 

July 1967 


My book had come home 
and with it a priceless gift 

from Cousin Laurie. 

Illustrated by 
Jerry Thompson 

it. Laurie and her family remained 
with us a week, and by that time 
I was beginning to think that my 
Aunt Minah was not a bad sort. 
It simply took awhile to get to 
know some grownups. 

The time came to tell our cousin 
and her parents good-bye. That 
morning after breakfast we chil- 
dren appeared to be listless, as we 
sat around looking at each other. 
After several moments Ophie stood 
in front of Laurie. 

"Here's my jar of lightnin' bugs 
you can have," he said, thrusting a 
small jar into her hands. There 
were holes punched in the lid. "Set 
'em in your room at night and 
they'll blink their lanterns." 

Noannie rushed out of the house, 
banging the door behind her, 
and returned shortly, breathlessly 
clutching a bouquet of crab apple 

blossoms. "Here's something I 
picked for you. Wear 'em in your 
hair, if you like." Laurie buried her 
nose in the clusters of pink buds. 

Billy offered her three of his 
shiniest marbles, and Quintus 
fished in his pockets until he found 
his slingshot and some whittled 
wood. Both were added to Laurie's 

I took Laurie by the hand and 
led her into our room. On the 
table by the bed I arranged all 
the treasures I owned, my best 
pencil drawing mounted on card- 
board, the little blue windmill my 
father had given me, a lock of my 
baby hair, the tiny cup and saucer 
from my first set of dishes, the 
little glass slipper I had won at the 
fair, and my grandmother's pin- 
cushion doll. 

"Laurie," I said; trying to con- 

trol my excitement, "you can choose 
your gift from anything on this 
table. Which one would you like?" 
I waited for her to pick her prize 
for a long, breathless moment. She 
examined each article closely, hesi- 
tating at each one. Then she 
reached for the knob on the table 
drawer and opened it slowly. I 
gave a little gasp. "My Book of 

"Oh, not to keep," she assured 
me. "May I just borrow it for 
awhile? I promise to take good 
care of it." 

"Well ... in that case," I said, 
concealing my disappointment. 
"Go ahead and take it. After all 
it is part of the table!" We both 
laughed, though I seriously doubted 

I would ever see the book again. 

« # # 

During the years between our 


Improvement Era 

occasional summer visits I waited 
patiently to find her letters in our 
mailbox. Many nights I burned 
the lantern late, pouring all my 
hopes and dreams into my letters 
to Laurie, and she shared hers 
with me. She had welded a great 
deal of influence on her mother, 
and Aunt Minah followed Laurie 
in baptism. 

The days and years passed 
swiftly through our letters, and it 
was Laurie's wedding day. She was 
marrying a fine, young man in the 
temple. I was there with my own 
husband to witness their marriage. 
Laurie was a picture of happiness 
as she hugged me tightly. 

"Carrie, I hope you'll forgive me 
for not returning your book. I've 
been so busy I forgot to bring it. 
But I'll get it to you some day, I 

"Oh, forget it! I really haven't 
needed it!" 

Laurie's husband took her to live 
on a farm in Iowa. As I fondly 
recalled how she had made pets of 
all our farm animals, I decided this 
must be where she belonged. 
Laurie bore him seven handsome 
children— six stalwart sons and one 
lovely daughter. Shortly after the 
birth of her youngest, her husband 
was killed in a tractor accident. 
She interrupted her grief long 
enough to say good-bye to her old- 
est son as he left for a mission. 

In the years that followed, his 
younger brothers and sister fol- 
lowed in his footsteps, each sup- 
ported by their hard-working 
mother and the children who re- 
mained on the farm. Laurie saw 
three of her children married, and 
held her first grandchild in her 
arms. Then she joined her husband 
in the spirit world. 

Sometime after the funeral, 
Laurie's daughter called to see me. 
She embraced me warmly and 
placed a package in my hand. The 
box was tied with ribbon. 

"Carrie, Mother insisted that you 
have this." Laurie had given me 
little gifts through the years, but 
what would my thoughtful friend 
give to me now— this last token of 
love? I waited until I was alone 
in my room to unwrap it. 

The book was badly worn, al- 
most backless. A few of the pages 
were torn. I turned it over in my 
hand, and with my finger I traced 
the faded signature on the flyleaf. 
I began to explore its pages, their 
margins filled with notations. For 
a long time I gazed at it until my 
vision blurred, and it seemed to 
melt in my hand. Seven faithful 
missionaries had preached to 
hundreds of souls from the book, 
resulting in the conversion of count- 
less numbers— missionaries who 
shared a gospel of love: their own 
dear mother's teachings. A price- 
less gift indeed, from my cousin 
Laurie. O 


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admission, show and buffet dinner. See 
your travel agent or write: 

July 1967 



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Best of Movies 

By Howard Pearson 

• For the second month, we are re- 
viewing as a family movie a picture 
with an educational theme. Last 
month, it was Up the Down Stair- 
case, the story of a young woman 
schoolteacher among underprivi- 

leged high school students in an 
American school. 

This month, we would like to 
review To Sir, With Love, which 
deals with a teacher of under- 
privileged students in London. In 
this case, the teacher is Sidney 
Poitier, who won an Oscar for his 
acting in Lilies of the Field. He 
well could be nominated again for his 
sensitive role in To Sir, With Love. 

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The story is predictable enough, 
but it is played with such loving 
attention to the message that it is 
lifted out of routine into a minor 
classic. The things the teacher 
does are simple enough, but how 
he does them strikes at the heart. 
Throughout the film, the message 
is one of human dignity. The 
teacher makes his students, some of 
them real toughs, respect each 
other in the way they speak and 

One tense scene comes when a 
bully in the class challenges the 
teacher to a boxing match. Having 
been a boxer, the teacher does not 
want to have a fight, but when he 
is forced to, he gains the respect 
of the class by whipping the bully. 

Other new releases this summer 
are Brighty of the Grand Canyon, 
story of an elderly prospector who 
adopts a wild little burro that 
roams the rocky trails of the Grand 
Canyon; Africa— Texas Style, an 
Ivan Tors production telling how 
American cowboys take part in an 
experiment to save wild beasts of 
Africa and at the same time aid the 
economy of the continent; Reluctant 
Astronaut, which stars that funny 
Don Knotts; El Dorado, a western 
with John Wayne; A Man for All 
Seasons, selected as best picture of 
the year by the movie industry; 
The Bible; and Follow Me, Boys, 
which is still in general release. 

In addition, there are some re- 
issues that should appeal to fam- 
ily groups. Walt Disney Studio is 
releasing again two of its funniest 
pictures— The Shaggy Dog and The 
Absent-Minded Professor, both of 
which star Fred MacMurray. The 
same studio will also reissue this 
summer the charming and lovely 
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 
which should find appeal for ma- 
ture moviegoers as well as for 
children. O 

Motion pictures reviewed on this page are 
neither approved nor recommended by the 
Church or the Era. They are, however, in 
the judgment of the reviewer, among the 
least obiectionable of the current films. 

Improvement Era 

:annon. Associate Editor • J' 


"They were honored in their generation! 

THIS IS THE TRIBUTE we annually pay to the winners of The Improve- 
ment Era youth writing contest. This year's winners are unusually tal- 
ented. They will long be remembered by the judges and staff and MIA 
executives. Everyone is remembered by someone for something. To be re- 
membered for achievement, for excellence, for wholehearted effort toward ' 
a goal is a dream few realize, but it is one these top award winners have 
already attained. 

A successful person doesn't just happen. The possibilities for success 
are innately with us, but what we do with what we have is the margin of 
difference. And a winning entry isn't just a product of luck. It is the 
result of an honest creative effort, of doing something commendable with 
God-given gifts, of carefully adhering to contest rules. 

Entries flooded our office bearing postmarks from the world over. 

Leonie Robyn Wood 

from Warriewood, 

Australia, now in final 

year at Narabeen 

Girls' High School. 

Louise Terry Lindorf 

from Whittier, 

California, honor 

student at University of 

California at Irvine, now 

preparing to leave for 

mission in Eastern Canada. 

Bonnie Muirbrook 

from Ogden, Utah, 
recent graduate of 

Weber High School 

where she maintained a 

3.8 grade average. 

Dennis Marden Clark 

from Provo, Utah, 

currently serving in the 

Texas Mission. 


Full Scholarship 

"Not a Whisper" 

Warriewood, N.S.W., Australia 

"Time of the Great War" 

Whittier, California 

Part Scholarship 
"Family Girl" 

Ogden, Utah 

"The Day Star Arise" 

Provo, Utah 

"Another Day" 

Ipswich, Suffolk, England 

"That Old Poet" 


Rancho Cordova, California 


Ogden, Utah 

"A Story About Kindness" 

Australian Mission 
(home: Spanish Fork, Utah) 

Full Scholarship 

"Bargains and Birthrights" 

Rexburg, Idaho 

Part Scholarships 
"The Discovery" 

Burley, Idaho 

"A Father's Prayer" 

North Ogden, Utah 

"All Is Calm" 


Long Beach, California 

"First Prize, Afloat!" 


Lowestoft, Suffolk, England 


"The Lonely Hill" 

Honolulu, Hawaii 


Athelstone, South Australia 

"Your Calling" 

Apia, Western Samoa 

"Space and the Probable Future" 

Stepney, South Australia 

"The Eternal Lament" 


Gilles Plains, South Australia 

CASH PRIZES ($50.00) 



Salt Lake City, Utah 


Improvement Era 

5, and were the glory of the times." 



There was evidence of much fine adult leadership and encouragement 
when many youth writers from the same wards and branches entered the 
contest. There were some who submitted more than twenty-five poems 
under different pen names. There were some who penned poems on "di- 
version day" in the mission field. There were some whose entries were 
submitted secretly by a proud parent. 

The subject matter was varied and often exciting. So much of the 
heart and soul of this generation was revealed. The quality of writing was 
so high that judges were hard pressed to make final decisions. Shake- 
speare said, "The harder match'd, the greater victory." 

We congratulate the winners and encourage all entrants to keep 
writing, keep contributing, keep sending the Era of Youth your efforts. 

The Editors 

Verlynne Insley 

from Rexburg, Idaho, 

now attending Ricks 

College majoring 

in journalism. 

Kathryn L. Newman 

top graduate 

of Burley High 

in Idaho. 

Lois Marie Hall 

from Ogden, Utah, 

has been attending 

Weber State College 

for the past two years. 

Shirleyann Gunning 

Convert to the Church 

from Great Britain; has 

been living for past 

several years 

in Hawaii. 


Salt Lake City, Utah 

"Capturing Gid" 

Mesa, Arizona 

"Two Graveyards" 

Safford, Arizona 

"Magnum Opus" 

Heber City, Utah 


Zurich, Switzerland 

"The Light of the Soul" 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


Phoenix, Arizona 

"Growing Up" 

Twin Falls, Idaho 


Jacksonville, Florida 

"Of Fields Unplowed" 

Eastern States Mission 
(home : Salt Lake City, Utah) 


"Gold Chairs and Hanging Lamps" 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


Salt Lake City, Utah 

"The Tragedy of Death" 

Downey, Idaho 

"Old Henry's Christmas" 

Gisborne, New Zealand 

"The Tides" 
St. John, Utah 


Fullerton, California 

"A Prayer" 

Vista, California 

"A Finger" 

Portland, Oregon 

"Listen to Your Heart" 

La Crescenta, California 

"The Converting Canine" 

Seattle, Washington 

"In My Father's House" 

Van Nuys, California 

"The Big Change" 

Ogden, Utah 

July 1967 






"^<- : - 










By Louise T. Lindorf 

a,:-; , 

". . .IHERE IS NO CHRIST!" the prisoner cried 
out. He was taken aside to await further 

From the shadows one of the prisoner's friends 
watched, tears rolling down his face. His throat 
ached, but he silenced the sobs he could feel 
rising. Not a sound would they hear. He could 
not let them capture him. He had to get away — 
fast. Still he lingered on, waiting to see the fate 
of his other friend, the next prisoner brought 

Voices hushed. Only crickets disturbed the 
stillness of the cold night air. Then the leader 
asked the second prisoner to state his feelings. 

After a pause, he answered, "Your system is 
totally corrupt. I will not be a part of it. Nor 
will I deny Christ. God lives !" 

"Kill him! Kill him!" they screamed. 

The prisoner's friend turned his face. He knew 
what came next and didn't want to see it. But 
he couldn't keep the anguished scream from his 
ears. Over and over it echoed through his soul 
as he stole away in the safety of the night. 

Both friends were dead now, each in his own 
way — although he had done all he could to save 
them. "Save them for what?" he thought bit- 
terly. "For this kind of life? For living in 
constant fear as I do, traveling only at night, 
hiding all day, without love, without hope?" 

But he had something to finish before he died. 
That's what kept driving him on, night after night. 
And he wasn't really without hope. He knew he 
still had one friend : the Lord. 

Intelligent people for many decades had made 
fun of "the unenlightened" among them who could 


still see some good in traditional religion. But 
he knew. They called it gullibility and stubborn 
superstition, but he knew he had so much reason 
to trust his religion — how could he go against it? 
When his enemies caught him, he knew what he 
would say. 

He surveyed the empty hills around him. In 
the valley ahead he saw a ruined city — rubble. 
Why? How had this happened to his country? 
His nation had been the best in the world for a 
long time. Never had they had a king. "But 
people just aren't good enough for democracy," 
he thought in bitter sadness. "It demands too 
much from them." The citizens themselves had 
joined his nation's long-time enemies in annihilat- 
ing the civilization he loved. 

Earlier, during the Great War, there had 
been a way to fight it. He had tried. His dad had 
been a commanding general in that war to end 
all wars. But no more. 

Now the son must walk helplessly through the 
barren countryside. But was it barren? Which 
tree would prove to be an enemy sentinel? 

His legs ached, but he made them move the 
faster. "One after the other — go. Tonight, I 
must reach the cave. They might find me tomor- 
row ... Go ; keep on ; go." A sharp pain shot up 
his leg. He had twisted his ankle. But he hobbled 
on, because he wanted to finish the memoirs he 
was writing. 

He kept walking all that night. Then he be- 
gan to recognize landmarks. The landscape 
seemed familiar. He was nearing the area where 
he had lived as a boy. There hadn't been much 
except scattered guerrilla warfare then, and he 
had hiked through these hills at his leisure. Soon 
he would be able to work on the record he wanted 
to leave for the people to come after them. 

An icy wind swept around him and on across 
the rocky slopes' vast emptiness. It was hard 
to believe that anyone would come. Most people 
had been killed in the Great War. Women and 
children had fought as well as men; the whole 
world in total war. The few people left roamed 
in savage, vicious bands. But something inside 
told him intelligent people would someday come 
across what he'd written. Maybe centuries would 
pass, but other people . . . someday . . . from 
somewhere. . . . 

"Over there!" someone shouted. 

Enemies! The man immediately dropped to 
the ground. Had they seen him? He crept 
quietly. He had to get away from where they'd 

first spotted him. If he could just lodge himself 
in that crack between those rocks up ahead. How 
mad he was that he had let his mind wander! 
After coming this far — he had almost made it! 
But now they would catch him for sure, especially 
since there was some moonlight. 

Maybe not. He had reached the rocks. But 
no — the crack was too small. He couldn't wedge 
himself behind that large rock. It was too late 
to really try. They'd already reached the spot 
where he had been the minute before. He sank 
into the shadows. A pebble slipped and bounced 
down the hill. 

"What was that?" a soldier asked. 

From his hiding place the man was praying 
within himself. 

The soldiers strained to see if anyone was up 
ahead, among the rocks. Then one said, "Oh, 
we could chase ghosts all night. Let's go back. 
It's probably just an animal. If it's a man, we'll 
catch him in the morning." 

Slowly the sound of their footsteps died away. 

He crossed the last valley and entered the cavern 

where he had concealed the records twenty years 


He had succeeded! He bowed his head and 

thanked God, then took out the metal plates and 
stylus. "Metal will last," he thought with satis- 
faction. He opened the plates to some passages 
his father had written and re-read them to get 
in the mood. He was aware, at first, of the dif- 
ference between colloquial idiom and the formal 
style of the records. Then, individual words didn't 
stand out ; there was only the powerful message : 
"And it is impossible for the tongue to de- 
scribe, or for man to write a perfect descrip- 
tion of the blood and carnage which was 
among the people. . . ." (Morm. 4:11.) 

"... for they repented not of their iniqui- 
ties. . . ." (Morm. 5:2.) 

" [And the Lord] would not suffer that the 
words should not be verified, which he spake 
unto our fathers, saying that: Inasmuch as 
ye keep not my commandments, ye shall not 
prosper. . . ." (Omni 6.) 
Then he picked up the stylus and wrote, 

". . . And I exhort you to remember these 
things; for the time speedily cometh that ye 
shall know that I lie not, for ye shall see me 
at the bar of God; and the Lord God will say 
unto you: Did I not declare my words unto 
you, which were written by this man, like as 
one crying from the dead, yea, even as one 
speaking out of the dust? . . ." (Moro. 10: 


Improvement Era 


By Eileen Perry 
Youth is my time — 

A lovely, sparkling, shimmering 
Time to treasure forever; 
An hour full of promises, 
Sixty minutes filled with joy; 
Precious scintillating baubles 
Set in crystal bowls of time, 
Spinning colors on a golden chain; 
Has a special kind of longevity, 
The forever kind, 
And that's why youth is mine. 

®g NOT A V 


Afo£ a whisper of a wind so much as breathed a gentle murmur at the close of day. 
Not a stirring of the earth from end to end existed for that holy stay. 

I raised my head and lifted my eyes, 

Entranced in the beauty of pre-dusk skies, 

And so, my soul was stilled, and I at peace. 

The sunset's crystal hand drew back the brilliant hues of day without a sound. 
A veil of silky night descended, grey, from heaven's roof to kiss the ground. 

I caught my breath; I lifted my gaze. 

My thoughts fled back through the misty haze, 

And through, and through, before the earth was born. 

I dreamed awhile, and, in my pondering, 

Imagined how the preexistence was. 

I looked upon the curtain in the dusk; 

A few bright stars were hung there . . . 

I slipped into my dream. 

I seemed to step into the mist 

That rose into the August night, 

Up to the dusky moonlit veil, and there, I seemed to pause. 

I heard my name in a gentle voice, 

And I had neither fear nor fright. 

"My child" the caller spoke, "you may come in, but must return." 

I left my misty carrier and passed beyond the dusky veil into another world, 
And, filled with awe, I stared at this familiar emptiness, my memory unfurled. 

In splendid beauty all around me was 

The stilly space, this sacred wealth 

As yet unscarred by human pelf. 

I stood transfixed, so strange was this, my being where I knew Vd been before 
With spirits, some now veiled in flesh on earth, and some still waiting at the door. 

I wandered forth without a guide 

And then, another at my side 

Said, "Come, Vm only here to visit too." 

He took my hand in his and led me forth 

Among the holy wonders of that world. 

The song of all creation, ringing out 

Mortality and progress . . . 

Eternity and more. 

"Here Father did create us both 

And taught us love and joy and truth. 

Here the foundations of a plan were laid to guide us home. 

We would leave this first estate 

, And grow, if we chose, in a mortal life, 

And tread, if we chose, on a rocky road that would lead to eternal life." 

40 Improvement Era 


• ••••• 

By Leonie Robyn Wood 

I seemed to hear the strains of what my heart knew was a song of praise that I myself had sung, 

Recalling how it burned with my soul when Father heard his children sing, and bells had rung; 

There kindled now the fire again, 

And I thought, how sweet and warm the flame. 

Then I saw tears in my companion's eyes. 

"Do you recall, 11 he spoke again, "the time when Father told us that a Savior must be sent? 
That some of us would know him, and would love him well, while some of us 

would shun the words he lent? 
And wisdom fall upon deaf ear, 
And all mankind would quake and fear 
In terror of the judgment's dread decree?" 

He asked us, "Who will go and Savior be 

To those who will return to me again? 

But you must choose; I will not force you home. 

Lucifer, the greedy? 

Or Jesus, king of love?" 

And how we loved the humble one, 

The Firstborn of our Father's heirs, 

Who reverently, and meekly, sought the glory for our God; 

While Lucifer, the angry one, 

Sought the power of Father's throne 

And with his hosts did war with us; and Michael's host did grieve. 

And when the earth and deeper sea, and wider sky and valley were created, we were there. 

We saw Jehovah's hand bring into being the sunrise and the twilight, yet the world was bare. 

Oh, then, what wonder he bequeathed 

To all the breath of life he breathed, 

And all the winds of destiny bowed down! -> 

So much lay far before us, and we longed for just the chance to test our faith and strength and love. 
"And here," he said, as he turned to me, 
"We prayed that our love might someday be. 
Somewhere, somehow, we knew we'd meet again. 

The paths we were to take were so unclear, 
And what the future held was still too dim. 
We could not see ahead, we did not know; 
And yet, we knew we trusted, 
And we knew that Father cared." 

Unspoken wonder filled my soul 

In kneeling at my Father's feet. 

And so, uplifted, turned I to the gentle August wind. 

We parted, still to meet on earth, 

The man whom I would love, and I, 

With Father's plan, a prayer of hope, a tear of joy, a song. 

July 1967 41 



One would think she had enough to do, keeping 
house for a family of five, without having to stop 
every few minutes to settle a quarrel. 

Resuming her work, Clarissa's thoughts con- 
tinued. Only fifteen and already responsible for 
the well-being of a whole family! Always she 
must cook, wash, mend, or clean, until there was 
no time left for anything she really enjoyed doing. 
Life had cheated her, she thought. Others her age 
didn't have to be worrying about making the 
flour last until Papa could spare John long enough 
to take the wagon and bring more from the mill, 
or keeping Wilford's worn overalls patched until 
there was money to buy more. It wasn't fair! 

How did God decide who was to live and who 
was to die? Why, out of the many who had been 
stricken with the fever, did Mama have to go? 
Mama, who had managed everything so smoothly, 

who had easily accomplished those little things 
that didn't seem difficult until you had to do them 

As Clarissa moved grimly about her work, she 
glanced up to view the morning sun flooding the 
valley, giving brillance to the little pioneer settle- 
ment. The creek bubbled hurriedly toward the 
fields as if anxious to help the young green shoots 
wiggle their way upward. Papa and John were 
hitching Old Nell to the plow in the far field, 
the last one to be planted. Mary Jane and Wilford 
were playing peacefully for a short time anyway, 
under the trees. 

A few months ago this peaceful picture would 
have filled her with a love for life. Before Mama 
had died, everything seemed to be perfect. Dream- 



Family Girl 

By Bonnie Muirbrook 





•iff- > * *¥•*&..:* 

ily, she remembered those happy days. There 
had been work to do, but Mother had been there 
to direct. 

The Johnsons had been the nearest neighbors, 
and Maggie was her age. Together they had ex- 
plored the realms of childhood, from mothering 
dolls to being heroines of an Indian ambush. 
Their friendship blossomed as they walked hand 
in hand into their teens. Looking back to those 
good times made the present seem more burden- 
some than before. Maggie was back east now and 
not subject to the hardships of pioneer life. 

Clarissa was startled from her daydreams by 
Wilford's rather demanding voice, "Sissy, I'm 
hungry! Isn't it time for dinner?" 

This practical question brought her hurriedly 
to the realization that Papa and John would be 
coming in from the field. As she began prepara- 
tions for the noon meal, her resentment still 

She greeted her father and brother almost 
coldly as they washed up at the basin on the 
porch. All through the meal she was gloomy and 
cross, adding to her father's burden. William 
Thomas was finding it difficult to adjust to this 
new life without his wife, and the suddenly with- 
drawn, resentful attitude of his elder daughter 
worried him considerably. Ever since Rachel's 

death, he had been afraid the extra responsibility 
would be too much for Clarissa, and he had tried 
to make it as easy as he could. 

Now Clarissa spoke sharply, as she told him 
she must have more flour if she were to continue 
to prepare meals. 

"John, hitch Nell to the wagon and bring some 
flour from the mill." 

"What about the plowing?" asked John. 

"I'll prepare the ditches while you are gone, 
and we'll finish the plowing when you return," 
her father answered tiredly. 

A pang of guilt made Clarissa turn away. It 
was time the plowing was done, and Papa needed 
John's help. She could get along — well, she didn't 
care; no one worried about her problems. 

"Clarissa, remember to get the children's clothes 
ready for church tomorrow." 

"Yes," thought Clarissa, "I do not do what I 
want, but what I must." 

Her resentment flared anew as she thought 
of all the work confronting her in order to pre- 
pare the children for tomorrow. Insisting that 
Mary Jane and Wilford do the dishes, she heated 
the f latirons on the stove and pressed Mary Jane's 
best gingham. Next came Wilford's "other" 
pants, a white shirt each for Papa and John, and 
then her own much-worn dress. 

By that time Wilford and Mary Jane had fin- 
ished the dishes. 

"Sissy, let's go pick berries," begged Wilford. 

"Then you can bake us a pie for supper," chimed 
in Mary Jane. 

"I can't just run off and leave all this work; 







besides, you haven't watered the garden yet, and 
you promised you would. Get the pails and run 
along," retorted Clarissa. 

Crestfallen, the children took the pails from the 
hooks by the door and walked dejectedly from the 

"I don't care," thought Clarissa hotly. "I 
haven't time, and besides, they might as well 
learn that life is just hard work." 

She put the irons up to cool, sewed the missing 
button on John's shirt, and, as she attacked the 
basket of mending, became more and more ab- 
sorbed in her self-pity. 

The afternoon wore on ; and as Clarissa became 
aware of the lateness of the day, she marched 
quickly toward the door, reaching automatically 
for the water pail. The empty hooks seemed to 
prick her heart as she realized how long it had 
been since she had heard the 
children's voices. 

She lost no time in 
reaching the side of the 
cabin, where she viewed 
the garden, only half 
watered. The pails were 
gone, too. The fears that 
instantly grasped Clarissa 
were stopped almost as 
suddenly as they began, as 
Mary Jane's voice broke the 
stillness. "Sissy! Sissy!" As 
Clarissa turned, Mary Jane rounded the side of the 
house. "Sissy, where's Wilford?" 

The question brought the fears racing back. 
Her heart thumped loudly in the stillness as she 
tired to control her voice. She knelt down near 
her sister and tried to remain calm as she asked, 
"Hasn't he been with you?" 

Wild pictures flashed through Clarissa's mind 
as Mary Jane explained, "We went to the creek to 
pick berries. I got tired and went to sleep. When 
I woke up he was gone." 

She was running so fast her breath came in 
short gasps. The creek! The very word caused 
her to tremble. Wilford had been warned many 
times not to get too near the edge. As she ran 
she called frantically, praying for an answer. Her 
eyes searched the bushes desperately, then turned 
to the clear water. Relief flooded her mind as 
she viewed the undisturbed area — but only momen- 
tarily, as she realized he was still missing and 
could be almost anywhere. 

Continuing along the creek bank, the guilt 
weighted her soul like a water-laden sponge. Wil- 
ford, the youngest of the family, had always been 

a source of happiness, especially during the dark 
days after her mother's death. Again her eyes 
penetrated the undergrowth and the bubbling 
stream of water. Finding nothing there, she 
turned to examine the surrounding landscape. The 
emptiness that confronted her caused her to point 
her steps toward the far field and Papa. 

The weeds grew rank and close to the wheel 
ruts and seemed to wave tauntingly in the wind, 
as though they were daring her to find what she 
sought. Ahead, the hard-packed trail ended 
abruptly in soft sand as it dripped into the old 
wash. The weeds, too, disappeared, causing her 
to sight the small form asleep against the bank. 
She was upon him instantly, waking him with 
her happy tears. "Sissy, don't cry," protested 
Wilford, as she stood him up and brushed the 
sand from his clothing. Hand in hand, they 

headed back toward the 
cabin and Mary Jane, who 
had followed as fast as 
her short legs would allow. 
As they reached the 
cabin, Clarissa could see 
John unloading the flour 
from the wagon. "Clarissa, 
Papa and I are hungry. We 
haven't been playing all day, 
you know," reprimanded 
John as he handed her a 
letter. The sharp retorts 
she was used to giving died in her throat, and she 
spoke gently. "Of course, John. I'll hurry." 
She tucked the letter into her apron, though she 
was curious to know its contents. 

After the supper work was done and the 
younger children safely in bed, Clarissa joined her 
father and brother by the fire. Silently she 
opened the letter and began to read. Her father 
glanced up. "From Maggie?" he asked. Clarissa 
nodded and continued to read. 

She laid the letter down and once again her 
father spoke. "How are the Johnsons?" She 
read the paragraph softly : 

"I'm with Aunt Abigail, and Susie's staying 
with our cousins in Boston. The boys are scat- 
tered among my grandparents and my uncles. 
Papa's job on the barge makes it impossible for 
us to be together. How I long for a family once 
more. It seems years since mother died and we 
were together." 

As Clarissa folded the letter, her eyes met with 
first her father's, then her brother's. 

The little cabin seemed to glow in the fire- 


Improvement Era 



By Andrew Gibbons 

There is one love 

that lifts 

a soul to heights 

And one that draws the heart 

in jumps 

to its beloved; 

July 1967 


By Verlynne Insley 

[HE STORY IS TOLD of a woman who dreamed 
throughout her life of taking an ocean voyage. 
After many years of hard work she finally saved 
enough money for a week's cruise. The amount 
was only enough for the ticket, however. There 
was none left over for extras. The woman de- 
cided to go ahead with her plans despite her lack 
of funds. She packed enough cheese and crackers 
to last through the voyage and started out with 
the other passengers. 

The cruise proved to be most enjoyable for 
the woman, except at mealtime. Every day, while 
her friends dined luxuriously in the banquet hall, 
she would remain on the deck with her cheese 
and crackers. Finally the trip came to an end 
and the passengers disembarked, thanking the 
captain and crew for their service. On her way 
off the boat the woman passed a steward who 
looked at her with a most puzzled expression. 

"Pardon me," he said, approaching politely. "I 
don't believe I ever saw you join us for dinner. 
You weren't ill?" 

Slightly embarrassed, the woman explained her 
financial predicament and told how she had solved 
the problem. 

The steward's confusion turned to surprise. 
Almost regretfully he showed the woman her 
ticket. "Your meals came with the price of the 
cruise," he explained. 'They were free!" 

This story has done much in helping me be- 
come more keenly aware of my "ticket" and its 
"extras" that are sometimes so easily overlooked. 
I live in a great country, my body is sound and 
healthy, and, most important, I have a religious 

Like many people who are born into the Church, 
I have often been guilty of taking its blessings 
for granted. I learned all the lessons while grow- 
ing up, and soon realized I was part of a good 
thing. But, while the banquet hall was nearby, 
I remained on the deck, nibbling. 

One summer, after much parental persuasion, 
I began to read the Book of Mormon. Suddenly I 
was fascinated. For the first time I discovered 
some of the "extras" that the truth offers. I was 
thrilled as I read and watched the prophecies and 
scriptures fall into place with the overall gospel 
plan. To my enthusiastic exclamations, Mother's 
only comment was, "It's been on the shelf all 
the time." 


Improvement Era 

Later, as a stake missionary, I delighted in 
watching other people experience these same joy- 
ful moments of recognition. The gospel was all 
so simple and true. People who were unaware 
of it were surely missing the most important 
dividends in life. How thrilling it was to explain 
the truth to those who were tired of "cheese and 

In reality, the saddest waste of opportunity is 
found within the Church. Here the tickets read 
"noble birthright," and with their price comes 
wealth unlimited, a fortune that often goes un- 
recognized and unclaimed or is sold for a fraction 
of its worth. 

While working at a college cafeteria, a friend of 
mine became involved in a serious dilemma. One 
hectic day a convention from Nevada added 500 
lunches to the normal student total, which involved 
handling a great amount of extra money. When 
the cafeteria finally closed and the cash registers 
were totaled, my friend found to her dismay that 
she was twenty dollars short. She recounted 
several times, but with no change in the total. 
Another cashier also counted the money with the 
same result. My friend took the money to the 
manager's office and then went home, fully ex- 
pecting to be without a job the following day, for 
she had no way to make up the sum. When she 
found no separation notice waiting the next 
morning, however, my friend curiously asked 
about the missing money. 

"It was the funniest thing," the manager 
laughed. "We all made the same mistake. You'll 
never guess. We had been counting silver dollars 
as fifty-cent pieces. I guess we just aren't used 
to money from Nevada !" The error was a simple 
oversight, but what a difference it made in the 
final outcome. The mistake also taught a lesson. 

The blessings we take for granted as members 
of the Church can be, and often are, only over- 
sights* but the total loss registered will be far 
more than twenty dollars, and the lesson is often 
learned too late. How wise we all would be to 
look hard and long at the riches within our grasp, 
making certain we are not subsisting on cheese 
when we could have steak, or seeing mere fifty- 
cent pieces when we are holding silver dollars. 
The matter is worthy of consideration and 
thought, for how pathetic it would be to realize 
too late what we had within our power — when our 
stomachs are empty, the voyage is over, and 
there's no turning back. 


July 1967 



an*"** 6 


8 Era of Youth Writing Contest 

Scholarships and Cash Awards 

We want you to enter . . . 

Three separate competitions 

Enter the one for the college you are interested in attending : 

Brigham Young University 

Ricks College 

Church College of Hawaii 

All three schools are awarding full and partial scholarships 

for the best young writers. 

(Please note: No entries from the mainland USA will be 
accepted for the Church College of Hawaii scholarships.) 

Eligible Entrants: 

High school seniors (1967-68) 
College-age (under 25 years of age on January 1, 1968) 


• Original poetry, short stories, or feature articles should be typewritten on white paper 
8^ x 11 inches, double-spaced, on one side of the paper only. 

• Each entry must be designated by a pen name and must be accompanied by a sealed 
envelope containing: 

1. The author's actual name, age, home address, title of entry, and a wallet-size 
photo. •.'..' 

2. The following statement: "This work is original," signed by the author. 
(Original means that it is the work of the writer and not something copied 
from some other source or planned or written by others.) 

• At the top of the first page of the manuscript, the author should write either BYU, 
RICKS, or CHURCH COLLEGE OF HAWAII, to designate which school he/she would 
be interested in attending if the entry merits a scholarship award. 

• Entries must be mailed to the Era of Youth Writing Contest, 79 South State Street, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111, postmarked not later than December 31, 1967. 

• Winning entries become the property of The Improvement Era. The Era reserves 
first publication rights to all entries. Payment for non-winning entries will be made 
upon publication. No entries will be returned. 

• All entries should be suitable for publication in The Improvement Era. 


Improvement Era 

By Ruth C. Ikerman 

Illustrated by Jeanne Lindorff 

• One of the joys of my life centers 
in the hymns I learned as a child 
in Sunday School. Never a soloist, 
I have received great satisfaction in 
being a humble part of the chorus- 
in a church choir, in a college glee 
club, and with the birds outside 
my kitchen window. 

When I am discouraged or wor- 
ried, I go out to my garden and 
pick up a watering hose and sing 
myself into a better mood by hum- 
ming the tunes or voicing the 
words of hymns. 

Sometimes I have to sing loudly 
to remind myself of the promises 
of faith and deliverance. Never 
was the need more urgent than on 
a hot night of summer several 
seasons ago when I went out into 
the dark while a loved one slept 
inside, recovering from illness. 

I was tired and discouraged, and 
the tension showed in my voice. 
How fortunate it was, I thought, 
that everybody within listening dis- 
tance was away. One neighbor 
was at the beach, another at the 
nearby mountains, a third vaca- 
tioning in another state. The little 
house on the side street was com- 
pletely dark, so I supposed this 
neighbor whom I knew but slightly 
was away also. 

Thus isolated, I started to sing, 
but my voice broke. Again I tried 
and had to give it up as a bad job. 
Finally, with almost a yell, I made 
a third attempt and managed to 
keep to the tune. 


For over an hour I sang, totally 
undisturbed and feeling completely 
alone on my little island of depres- 
sion. Then I went indoors, rested 
enough by the comfort of the 
hymns to fall into a deep but 
troubled sleep. 

Next morning there was a knock 
at the door. There stood the 
slightly known neighbor, looking 
wan and pale. She moved shakily 
into a chair. "I came to thank you 
for singing those glorious hymns. 
You will never know how much I 
needed them." 

I told her I had thought I was 
singing to myself to keep up my 
own courage. "You strengthened 
me," she said. "I learned yesterday 
that I must have extensive medical 
care and must move from here to 
live with my daughter. I was lying 
in bed fighting the move with all 
my heart. Now it is all right, and 
I can do what is necessary." 

When she left I reflected anew 
how we are a part of each other in 
this life and that it matters indeed 
how well we bear our own bur- 
dens, for unknown to us someone 
may be needing us for strength and 

Out of my temporary discour- 
agement and heartache I had sung 
the hymns of faith, love, and 
courage for my neighbor who 
needed their solace, too. I deter- 
mined to remember that there is 
special blessing in facing life with 
a hymn in my heart. O 

July 1967 







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State registrar of vital statistics (see Public 
Health Service publication no. 630A-1 Where to 
Write for Birth and Death Records, available 
by writing to the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Gov't Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

State registrar of vital statistics; clerk of the 
probate court, town clerk, or equivalent office; 
(see Public Health Service publication no. 630B 
Where to Write for Marriage Records, avail- 
able by writing to the Superintendent of Doc- 

See Public Health Service publication no. 630C 
Where to Write for Divorce Records, available 
by writing to the Superintendent of Documents 









Births: name, date and place of birth; 
parents' names, ages, residence, occu- 

Deaths: name, date and place of 
birth, date and place of death, occu- 
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formant, date and place of burial, 
cause of death; parents' names, 
places of birth 

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sometimes ages, witnesses, person 
who performed ceremony, names of 
parents, residence of couple; (since 
approx 1900 all information men- 
tioned above is given) 

Names, date, residence, length of 
residence, date of filing, description 
and distribution of property, date of 
marriage, names and ages of children, 
custody rulings 








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National Archives (information may be re- 
quested by completing National Archives form 
no. NAR 288, available by writing to General 
Services Administration, National Archives 
and Records Services, Washington, D.C. 20408); 
state archives; many lists in print, some (GS) 

NOTE. Original federal pension files prior to 
1813 were destroyed but some have been recon- 
structed from state records 

Central depositories of churches; genealogical 
and historical societies; local custody; some in 
print (GS); some on film (GS) 

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July 1967 



r* *r + ■* 

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',*•*: a**-^ x* 




By Derek Dixon 

Illustrated by 
I Travis Winn 

• On November 25, 1695, the prelates and divines of 
Oxford University met in solemn convocation and 
roundly condemned a certain Dr. Sherlock for preach- 
ing heretical doctrines in the university chapel. Dr. 
Sherlock had stated in one sermon that the godhead 
consisted of three separate and distinct individuals! 

Not only was Dr. Sherlock condemned verbally; 
"counterblastes" were also written containing long 
extracts from earlier works in an attempt to brand 
Dr. Sherlock as heretical. One of these "counter- 
blastes" was a pamphlet translated from the Latin 
in 1567. A copy of the 1696 edition, which defames 
Dr. Sherlock, is in the Birmingham Reference Library, 
Warwickshire, England. 

The title page says: "A Short history of Valentinus 
Gentilis the Tritheist, tryed, condemned, and put to 
death by the Protestant Reformed City and Church 
of Bern in Switzerland, for asserting the Three Divine 
Persons of the Trinity, to be Three distinct, eternal 

A short but biased synopsis of the life of Gentilis 
then follows. He was born at Campania, near Naples, 
Italy, and as a young man he went to Geneva where 
he fell in with a group of Italians who had been 
banished because of their religious beliefs. They 
preached a new doctrine— that the Trinity consisted 
of three separate and distinct beings. After a short 
period of intense study, Gentilis joined the group 
and began to preach the new doctrine. In 1558 the 
authorities arrested him, making the following 
charges : 

"1 ) That he dissented from us, and all the orthodox 
in the doctrine of the trinity. 

"2) That he had thrown many scandalous and un- 
heard of imputations upon our church, and charged 
her with heresie. . . . 

"3) That his writings contain many impious blas- 
phemies, frequently used by him in his disputes 
concerning the trinity. . . ." 

Gentilis was forced to recant— on the threat of 
death— and submitted to the following: 

Improvement Era 

"First, That you shall be stript close to your Shirt, 
then barefoot and bareheaded shall carry in your 
hand a lighted Torch, and by God's pardon and 
ours on your knees, by confessing yourself maliciously 
and wickedly to have spread abroad a false and 
heretical doctrine; but that you do now from your 
heart detest and abhor those abominable, lying, 
blasphemous books you composed in its defence; in 
testimony whereof you shall cast them with your own 
hands into the flames, there to be burnt to ashes; 
and for more ample satisfaction we do enjoin you to be 
led through all the streets of this city, at the sound 
of the trumpet, and habited as before; and do strictly 
command you not to depart the city without per- 

Shortly after this Gentilis did depart the city— 
without permission. He fled to Lyons, France, where 
he collected evidences of his belief from the Greek 
and Latin fathers. He wrote a book, Antidotes, which 
was never published. 

He traveled throughout France and finally stopped 
at Gaium, Switzerland. Since he was not in the 
habit of keeping his convictions private, he was by 
this time quite famous. Thus it is not surprising to 
find the governor of Gaium demanding a confession 
of his beliefs, which document he would send to the 
clergy at Bern. Gentilus wrote the confession, but 
he sent it to a publisher instead— and dedicated it to 
the governor. 

He then fled to Lyons, only to be imprisoned for 
two months. From there he went to Poland and spent 
two years "causing much strife because of his doc- 
trines." He returned to Gaium where, not surprisingly, 
the governor promptly threw him into prison, and on 
June 2, 1566, he was ordered to Bern to be examined 
by the Senate. 

What were the doctrines that brought Gentilis 
into such abuse and persecution? Chapter 5 of the 
pamphlet written about him in 1567 has the statement 
that it "contain[s] some propositions taken out of his 
[Gentilis'] books of the Trinity, which we [the au- 

thors of the pamphlets] Judge to be false." It then 
continues : 

"And now we desire the whole church of God, 
and the piety of all succeeding ages to judge of the 
following position, wherein he [Valentinus Gentilis] 
does either by an impudent prevarication scandalize 
and bespatter us, or, which is far worse, impiously 
blaspheme God. 

"And first, he calls the Trinity [that is, the doctrine 
of three in one] a mere human invention, . . . and 
directly contrary to the Word of God. 

"Secondly, he affirms, That the Father alone is that 
One only God, set forth to us in the Holy Scripture. 

"Thirdly, That the Son is not of himself, but of the 
Father, to whom He is Subordinate as to His Maker. 

"Fourthly, The Father, Son and Holy Ghost are not 
only three distinct Persons, but have also Three dis- 
tinct Essences or Substances. 

"Fifthly, The Son was begotten by the Father, 
according to his Substance, and differs from the 
Father as a Subordinate Spirit. 

"Sixthly, There are in the Trinity Three Eternal 
Spirits, each of which is by himself God. 

"Seventhly, That these three Spirits differ from each 
other in Order, Degree, and Propriety of Essence." 

For teaching these things Valentinus Gentilis was 
sentenced to beheading by the Senate of Bern. And 
"as he was led out to execution, the obstinate wretch 
did not cease to glory in his unruly and pertinacious 
stubbornness and expecting praise from it (as the 
Devil's martyrs used to do) never left off crying out, 
That he died a martyr for the Glory of the most 
high God. . . ." 

What is most interesting is that in the fate of 
Gentilis we can see the fate of the gospel had it been 
restored in Europe instead of America. If such men 
as Gentilis were killed for teaching the truth about 
God as they found it in the scriptures, what would 
have been the fate of such a man as Joseph Smith, 
who said that he had seen "the Father and the Son" 
face to face? O 

July 1967 


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— — minin! 



151 234 5bl 8 




©The American Oil Company, 1967. World's largest distributor of Atlas tires 

The LDS Scene 

Microfilm Display in Miami 

The Genealogical Society sponsored a display booth 
at the National Microfilm Association convention in 
Miami, Florida, recently. The display depicted the 
Church's extensive microfilming program. Brother 
Van A. Neiswender, manager of the microfilm production 
division of the Genealogical Society, explained to 
visitors the work done by the Church in microfilming 
records and storing them in the Granite Mountain 
Records Vault. 

National Officer 

Dr. Jay Slaughter of Ricks 
College will complete a 
two-year term as national 
president of Kappa Kappa 
Psi, national band 
organization, in August. He 
will conduct the group's 
convention at Fort Worth, 
Texas, August 27-31. 

Gold Medal Award Winner 

Gordon Burt Affleck, 
managing director of Church 
procurement, was recently 
presented the National 
Association of Purchasing 
Agents Gold Medal Award as 
"a mark of esteem and appre- 
ciation for his guidance to 
purchasing agents in America." 

Visitors' Center at Harris Home 

A new visitors' center is to be opened this 
summer at the Martin Harris home near 
Palmyra, New York. Highlighted will be 
paintings, sculptures, and other exhibits 
pertaining to witnesses to the Book of 
Mormon. Included among the exhibits is the 
painting (above) depicting Professor Charles 
Anthon tearing the certificate he had 
previously given to Martin Harris certifying 
that the characters transcribed from the 
plates were true characters and the 
translation was correct. 

Lion House Pioneer Memorial 

The Lion House, one of Brigham Young's homes, is being remodeled 

for use as a social center by the YWMIA general board. The remodeling 

includes removal of some of the partitions to make larger space 

areas and building of a cafeteria in the basement. The home will be 

furnished by the YWMIA with furniture of the pioneer period. 

The Lion House is one of 48 sites selected as national historic landmarks 

by the advisory board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, 

and Monuments. 


Improvement Era 

First Chapel on China Mainland 

President Hugh B. Brown of the First Presidency 
dedicated the first chapel to be dedicated on the mainland 
of ancient China on April 16. It is located at Un Long 
in the Honk Kong zone. The Un Long Branch has 
a membership of 234 and is a part of the Southern 
Far East Mission. 

Apostle Completes Rotary Assignment 

Elder Richard L. Evans of the Council of the Twelve 
spoke to an estimated 17,000 Rotarians from 90 
countries at the opening session of the international 
Rotary convention at Nice, France, May 21. Elder 
Evans has just completed his term as Rotary international 
president, after having traveled to more than 50 
countries during the past year in the performance of 
his duties. 

Vice-chancellor at UCSB 

Charles Raymond Varley, 
a former high councilor in 
the American River Stake, 
has been named the 
new vice-chancellor for 
business and finance at the 
University of California 
at Santa Barbara. He was 
formerly assistant director 
of the California Department 
of Public Works. Brother 
Varley, who was born and 
reared in Salt Lake City, 
is married and the father of 
seven children. 

Days of '47 Royalty 

Reigning over Salt Lake City's Days of '47 celebration 
will be Marilee Christensen, a descendent of Utah 
pioneers. She and her attendants, who were selected 
from a field of 152 candidates in a contest sponsored 
by the Daughters of Utah Pioneers, will reign over events 
commemorating the arrival of the Utah pioneers in 
Salt Lake Valley July 24, 1847. Marilee is active 
in the Millcreek 11th Ward in Salt Lake City. Her 
attendants, who are also descendants of pioneers, are 
Gail Rich, Salt Lake City, and Linda Nickle, 
Delta, Utah. 

Federal Budget 
Commission Chairman 

David M. Kennedy, Chicago 
banker and former member 
of the Chicago Stake 
presidency, has been ap- 
pointed chairman of a 
16-member commission in 
the Johnson administration. 
He will direct a study of 
how the federal budget is 
prepared and presented to 
the public. He is currently 
chairman and chief 
executive officer of the 
Continental Bank and Trust 
Company of Chicago. 
Brother Kennedy is also 
chairman of the Brigham 
Young University national 
development council. 

July 1967 



Conducted by the 
Church School System 

By Neil J. Flinders 

Instructor, Ogden Institute 
of Religion 



• The statement teaching is a 
touching business infers two as- 
sumptions: (1) someone is to be 
touched and (2) some tech- 
nique ( s ) or method ( s ) for touching 
the feelings and spirit of another 
person exists. These two assump- 
tions form a convenient division for 
discussing the process of effective 
teaching in the religious education 
program of the Church. First, 
what is the nature of the student— 
what is the nature of man? Second, 
how does one go about influencing 
the behavior of such a being? 

Part one of this article will treat 
the first question by reviewing four 
issues : ( 1 ) What is man? ( 2 ) How 
does man learn? (3) What motiva- 
tions for learning exist? (4) What 
is meant by the term religion? Part 
two will discuss some of the chal- 
lenges that face religious educators 
as they grapple with the task of 
touching the lives of others. 

Teachers of religion are not in- 
volved in just dispensive teaching; 
they are involved in directive teach- 
ing—teaching that accepts the 
responsibility to produce specific 
behavioral responses. This empha- 
sis creates some rather unique 
challenges. It assumes that the 
teacher's influence will be reflected 
in the student's behavior in the 

manner the teacher intended. This 
assumption presumes the teacher is 
capable of working with the student 
on an effective level— on a feeling 
level, on a level that touches the 
emotional and spiritual systems as 
well as the intellectual or rational 
powers of the student. 

What Is Man? 

The answer a person provides to 
the psalmist's query, "What is man 
that thou art mindful of him?" is 
reflected in that person's social 
attitudes and interpersonal relation- 
ships. For men and women who 
devote their lives to a work that 
deals primarily with helping man 
come to know himself, his neigh- 
bor, and his Heavenly Father, the 
answer to the question is particu- 
larly vital. The religion teacher in 
The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints is challenged to 
comprehend and adopt the most 
ennobling and positive definition 
of man; and, in turn, the definition 
needs to be evidenced in the 
teacher's behavior. Acceptance of 
the value and worth of the indi- 
vidual is the most fundamental pre- 
requisite for successful teacher per- 
formance in the religious education 
program of the Church. 

No philosophy accords man such 
stature and importance as does that 
contained in the Church of Jesus 
Christ. Man is a literal child of 
God. He is more than a subject of 
nature. He exists upon a self- 
existing principle; but with the pro- 
gram provided by his Heavenly 
Father, he is able to move through 
a series of developmental stages— 
from a spirit being, to a mortal, to 
an immortal soul. This program 
we know as the eternal plan of sal- 
vation. It encompasses man's pre- 
earth life, his earth life, and his 
post-earth life. 

As a mortal being, man is in a 
probationary state— a state of being 
in which he is tested to see if he 
can acquire those characteristics 
and attributes that will entitle him 
to become like his eternal parents, 
worthy of retaining the power of 
procreation so that he might em- 
bark upon the task of bringing to 
pass the immortality and eternal 
life of his own posterity. 

Each individual, therefore, is im- 
portant in terms of his eternal 
parentage. As a child of God, he 
is a member of a heavenly family. 
In this eternal sense man needs 
God, just as, in the mortal sense, he 
needs earthly parents. Conversely, 
God needs man, just as a parent 


Improvement Era 

Is a TbuchmgBusmess 

needs children. The Father glories 
in children who glorify and honor 
his name, not in children who rebel 
against and dishonor him. He needs 
children who accept the other 
members of the family. He needs 
children who behave in such a way 
that they achieve success and find 
joy and happiness. 

This definition of man's relation- 
ship to his brothers and sisters and 
to his God justifies a program of 
religious education. Man's purpose 
transcends mortality. Therefore, 
his training, if he is to achieve his 
potential, must transcend mortality. 
This is the assignment of the re- 
ligious educator. In order to aid 
man in this quest, the teacher of 
religion must be aware of and 
adept at promoting the kind of 
learning that will help men and 
women progress according to the 
eternal plan. Man must be touched 
in such a way that he will respond 
in harmony with his potential 

How Does Man Learn? 

There are numerous theories of 
learning. Most of these are the 
results of attempts to analyze and 
explain the technical process of 
idea acquisition and its effect on 

behavioral response. These step- 
by-step technical descriptions of 
the relationships between mental 
awareness and physical behavior 
are providing beneficial insights to 
the educator that are making it 
possible to improve educational 
efficiency. The traditional assump- 
tions of psychology and physiology, 
however, have not taken into 
account the premortal existence of 
man. To this extent there is an 
element of the unknown that is 
complicating the search to fully 
comprehend how and why man 
learns and behaves as he does. 

Recognizing the natural limita- 
tions of scientific research, it is still 
possible to combine what has been 
learned through research with what 
has been revealed by the Lord, and 
come up with an operational de- 
scription of the learning process. 
Although this approach does not 
offer an explanatory theory in the 
scientific sense, it does provide a 
functional theory that is very 
usable. A practical system of some 
type is necessary in guiding educa- 
tional endeavors if a professional 
performance is to result in the class- 
room. The following set of princi- 
ples is one way of stating some 
rather self-evident conclusions that 
can be derived from an examination 

of social-psychological research, 
revelation, and man's life experi- 

The following are principles of 
learning that provide guidelines for 
religious educators: 

1. Learning is the product of ex- 
perience, and, in a broad sense, 
experience of some type is pre- 
requisite to all learning. Whenever 
there is experience, there is some 
kind of learning. 

2. Experience tends to produce 
ideas or concepts, and, because 
man's capacity to reason is an in- 
dividual power, the conclusions 
that result from the thinking 
process will reflect some variation. 

3. Experience and the subse- 
quent conclusions drawn from 
experiences tend to create feelings 
within a person that determine his 

4. Behavior that seems to satisfy 
the individual tends to be repeated. 

5. Patterns of behavior that re- 
sult from the experiences, ideas, 
feelings, and actions of a person 
tend to stabilize, and these patterns 
constitute one's character. 

6. Ideal patterns of behavior or 
character are those that cause a 
person to respond to life and its 
laws in ways that are in harmony 
with truth and the eternal welfare 

July 1967 


of the individual. This is the 
achievement of perfection. This 
is the goal of education. 

7. To be meaningful in the eter- 
nal sense, the learning process is 
dependent upon interpersonal in- 
teraction, and the educational 
programs must provide for this 
factor in the curriculum in order to 
direct the integration of the learn- 

ing experience. (Note: Educational 
programs that are designed only to 
assume responsibility for dealing 
with the individual and the subject 
matter are merely dispensive -type 
educational programs. Such sys- 
tems are avoiding the most signifi- 
cant aspect of true education— its 
application. The directive-type edu- 
cational system incorporates into 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

Whatever you do," said Emerson, "you need courage. Whatever 
course you decide upon, there is always someone to tell you 
you are wrong. There are always difficulties arising which 
tempt you to believe that your critics are right. To map out a course of 
action and follow it to an end requires . . . courage." There is no signifi- 
cant decision of life that doesn't require some kind of courage, and no typi- 
cal day of life that doesn't require some sort of courage; and certainly 
there is no great venture in life that doesn't require courage. "Courage is 
the greatest of all the virtues. Because if you haven't courage, you may not 
have an opportunity to use any of the others." 1 It takes courage to be 
different. It takes courage to side with someone who is being unfairly 
abused. It takes courage to befriend someone who is in popular disfavor, 
to advocate an unpolitic or unprofitable opinion. It takes courage to 
speak out in favor of an unpopular proposal, or an inconvenient or 
unpopular principle. It takes courage to turn down a dare. It takes 
courage to ignore ridicule even when one is right. Sometimes it takes 
courage even to run away from an evil proposal; for evil, like misery, 
loves company, and doesn't make it easy for anyone to run out on it. 
Often it takes courage to find the peace that comes with repenting. 
Pursuing anything that isn't easy, isn't popular, anything that isn't con- 
sidered to be quickly successful, requires courage. The critics are often 
cruel, sometimes honestly cruel and sometimes cruel for reasons that 
are other than honest. Sometimes they are wrong. But anyone who stands 
for anything, who says anything, who does anything that amounts to 
much, must face the critics— and that requires courage. "Whatever you 
do, you need courage"— especially the courage that comes with a con- 
viction of being right, and the equal, or even almost greater, courage to 
repent from wrong. Life itself, with every significant decision, requires 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting System April 30, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

^Accredited to Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

its design provisions for integrating 
its educational objectives through 
interpersonal interaction. ) 

The learning matrix described 
above becomes so complex as man 
encounters his multitudinous ex- 
periences that, at present, it is 
beyond our comprehension. We 
do know, however, that the prin- 
ciples of the gospel of Jesus Christ 
and their attendant ordinances are 
designed to help man to move into 
harmony with truth rather than 
away from harmony with truth. 
Such principles as love, repentance, 
forgiveness, faith, virtue, and 
temperance hold the secrets of 
educational excellence. Eventually, 
if we continue to study these re- 
vealed truths academically as well 
as spiritually, we will learn the 
"how" and the "why" of their in- 
fluence on man. 

Motivation for Learning 

The principles of the gospel of 
Jesus Christ, when radiated through 
the lives of individuals, create the 
optimum kind of a learning atmo- 
sphere. Forces represented by such 
terms as security, interest, desire, 
and freedom are optimized when 
individuals associate with one an- 
other in compliance with the 
principles of the gospel. Man as 
an eternal, though mortal, entity is 
in a state of becoming, and he has 
a variety of needs that cause him 
to act. There are numerous lists 
of these forces or needs in psycho- 
logical literature, and most of them 
are apparent in the scriptures, al- 
though they are not dealt with in 
modern terminology. 

The categories listed below, in 
the writer's opinion, comprise a 
rather complete coverage of the 
goals or needs that seem to impel 
man to act. The forces represented 
by these terms cause man to seek 
satisfaction and peace within him- 
self. Apparently, there is not 
unanimous agreement as to the way 
in which these forces or needs 


Improvement Era 

affect a person's behavior. A com- 
bination of circumstances plus the 
character or personality of the 
individual seems to dictate priority 
of need fulfillment. At times this 
tendency to act is called motivation 
—the term used to describe a per- 
son's efforts to successfully relate 
to the world as he perceives and 
experiences it. 

Areas of Man's Needs 

1. Physiological needs, such as 
food, drink, rest, light. 

2. Safety from physical harm. 

3. Receiving and expressing af- 
fection—a feeling of accepting and 
being accepted, of belonging, of 
having companionship and friend- 

4. Expressing creative accom- 
plishment; making a contribution 
that elicits prestige, status, self- 
esteem, satisfaction; identifying 
one's self. 

5. The security of identification 
with a power that can be appealed 
to when circumstances are beyond 
man's personal control. 

All of these needs interrelate in 
the human personality, creating 
and determining what is loosely 
termed motivation. The climate 
for effective learning must provide 
an avenue for the student to satisfy 
some of these needs. The religion 
teacher is more responsible for 
aiding the student in some areas 
of need fulfillment than in others. 
He is not, for example, primarily 
responsible for providing food or 
drink, but he is responsible for 
helping the student feel accepted. 

The best climate for learning is 
the one in which satisfaction is 
maximized in those areas of need 
that relate to the subject being 
taught. In religious education pro- 
grams, this climate is created best 
by the teacher who is properly 
meeting these needs in his own life. 
The teacher who is able to accept 
self is the teacher who is more able 
to accept his students, who can give 

of himself, and who is willing to 
go the extra mile. This kind of 
teacher automatically tends to es- 
tablish a climate conducive to 
desirable learning. The student 
exposed to such an atmosphere 
finds a situation in which he can 
better satisfy his own unmet needs 
for growth and development. 
In addition to the above descrip- 

tion of man's learning experience, 
another dimension of the learning 
process needs to be considered. 
This is found in the Lord's explana- 
tion for human behavior given in 
Section 93 of the Doctrine and 
Covenants. Here the Lord indi- 
cates that all things are plainly 
manifest unto man, but the powers 
of evil (Satan), using the forces of 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

Manners from Models 

In commenting on the character, the courtesy— or lack of it— of young 
people, of all people, Frederick K. Stamm asked: "Are the young 
to blame for their discourteous actions . . . ? There are ways of 
training the youth to be . . . pleasing, and useful citizens. It can be done 
by parents being courteous themselves, not from a mere desire to observe 
conventions but instinctively from a spirit of genuine sympathy, thought- 
fulness, and profound respect for the other members of the family as 
personalities. The boy will learn courtesy when he sees his father treat 
the boy's mother like a queen, and the wise and well-balanced girl is she 
whose mother maintains grace and dignity in relationships with her 
husband and sons." 1 Manners, kindness, courtesy— these don't just happen. 
They come from several sources. "Where the spirit of love and duty 
pervades the home— . . . where the daily life is honest and virtuous— 
. . . kind, and loving, then may we expect . . . healthy, useful, and happy 
beings. . . . Models are, therefore, of every importance in moulding the 
nature of the child. ... In the face of a bad example, the best of 
precepts are of but little avail. . . . Indeed, precept at variance with 
practise is worse than useless . . . [for] children are judges of consistency, 
and the lessons of the parent who says one thing and does the opposite 
are quickly seen through. . . . The tiniest bits of opinion sown in the 
minds of children in private life afterwards issue forth to the world, and 
become its public opinion; for nations are gathered out of nurseries. . . . 
The manners of society at large are but the reflex of the manners of 
our collective homes, . . ."- said Samuel Smiles. "Indeed, we can always 
better understand and appreciate a man's real character . . . [not so 
much] by his public exhibition of himself but by the manner in which 
he conducts himself towards those who are the most nearly related to 
him, and by his transaction of the commonplace details of daily duty." 3 

# "The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting System May 7, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

^Frederick K. Stamm, "Courtesy," Good Housekeeping, January 1937. 

2 Samuel Smiles, Character, Ch. 2, "Home Power." 

Hbid., Ch. 1, "Influence of Character." 

July 1967 


opposition, come and take away 
light and truth, leaving man in con- 
fusion and darkness. It is explained 
that Satan accomplishes this in two 
ways: first, by introducing man to 
the spirit of disobedience, and sec- 
ond, by confusing men with the 
false social traditions of their 
fathers. (D&C 93:31, 38-39.) 

The Prophet Joseph Smith ex- 
plained that Jesus "needed not that 
any man should teach him." (In- 
spired Version, Matt. 3:25.) It was 
only necessary that his Father 
reveal Christ to himself in the glory 
he had with his Father before the 
foundation of the world. (Inspired 
Version, John 17:5, 24.) From this, 
it appears the forces of darkness 
operate more upon the principle of 
subtraction than the principle of 
addition. Evidently, man's problem 
is not an inability to comprehend 
or acquire truth, light, and 
knowledge. His problem is one 
of rejecting— of not accepting the 
truth, light, and knowledge that is 
plainly manifest unto him. 

The foregoing information sug- 
gests that religious education is as 
much a matter of recovery as it is 
of discovery. Spiritual instruction, 
then, should be designed to bring 
man to an awareness, not so much 
of things new, but of things old 
that he has lost or that have been 
obscured from his vision. Man's 
mind is not a "blank tablet." He 
has had a long pre-earth existence 
that had a powerful impact upon 
his intelligence, but that is con- 
cealed from his conscious aware- 
ness by a thin veil. (Abr. 3:22-26; 
Heb. 6.T9-20. ) Spiritual instruction 
is not a matter of how one can 
believe without evidence. It is a 
matter of how one has managed to 
hide the evidence (within him- 
self) from himself and of finding 
a way to reencounter that evidence 
with the student. This view of 
education makes it possible to 
more clearly understand the in- 
junction, ". . . if ye receive not the 
Spirit ye shall not teach." (D&C 

42:14.) Authentic religious educa- 
tion is emotionally revelatory as 
much as it is intellectually explana- 
tory. This type of education has 
its own unique requirements when 
it comes to instructional techniques 
—a problem we will face in part 
two of this article. 

What Is Religion? 

Another element needed in the 
framework of teaching in a touch- 
ing manner is a definition of the 
term religion. Religion has a dual 
definition in the literature that 
deals with it. In a formal aca- 


Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

Some very simple things 

In days of much complexity we hear often over-complicated explana- 
tions for very simple things, and often under-simplify the real essence 
of what it is that makes men, of what it is that matters most. And 
often it seems we start at the wrong end, as we create more and more 
agencies and organizations that endeavor most earnestly to do what good 
and wholesome homes should and could do. Homes were given us for 
caring, for shaping character, for love and loyalty and reverence and 
respect. To quote: "The test of every religious, political, or educational 
system [and we might add, of every home] is the man it forms." 1 And 
so, thoughts turn to home— a simple, humble home, with a faithful, 
modest mother, in a simple, honest, uncomplicated way. living a service 
of love, speaking quietly of honor and duty and virtue; thoughts of 
saying prayers at her knees and of hearing her say: do your duty, be 
honest, pay your debts, say your prayers, don't quarrel, don't gossip, have 
faith. Many other ingredients and counsels could be added, the words 
could be multiplied, but the lessons could scarcely be improved upon, 
especially not when she lived that kind of life, not when she set that 
kind of example: do your duty, work honestly, pay your debts, say your 
prayers, have faith. Elaborate explanations may add some understanding 
of the complexities of the problems of people, but the simple, soul- 
cleansing virtues— be clean, be honest, be faithful, be prayerful— will 
serve long, before a better way is found to cleanse the soul, to calm the 
mind, to give the heart a greater peace and purpose. And so, our plea 
for turning toward the simple things, to a conviction that God lives, 
that life is purposeful, that there are commandments to keep, virtues 
to live by, conscience to consider, with the simple assurances that come 
with the honest, earnest living of life. Thank God for the simple things 
that satisfy, and for the God-given truths that somehow, despite all 
complexity, all sophistry, carry with them their own explanation, their 
own assurance for the future. 

#"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting System May 14, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

iAuthor unknown. 


Improvement Era 

demic sense, the term has reference 
to a set of explicit beliefs, teach- 
ings, and practices usually asso- 
ciated with an organization or 
order that exists apart from its 
individual membership. This is 
one way of looking at religion— a 
creedal or theological view. 

The other definition of religion 
would equate the term with an 
individual's behavior. A man's 
religion is his personal behavior, 
and his personal behavior is his 
religion. This is to say that re- 
ligion is a way of life and must be 
considered in terms of personal 
behavior rather than just theologi- 
cal statements. Ideally, the two 
are harmonious and become one in 
the individual. Practically speak- 
ing, however, this is a lifelong task, 
and various individuals belonging 
to the same church can be giving 
allegiance to different "religions." 
When a teacher of religion views 
his task, it will be apparent that it 
is much easier to teach the rational 
aspects of theology and church 
organization than it is to inculcate 
behavioral religion into the lives of 
his students. This pattern of deal- 
ing with the subject intellectually 
is the path of least resistance. Why 
this is so will be the subject of part 
two of this article. O 

Little Song for Faith 
By Elaine V. Emans 

The spiderling goes ballooning 
To parts unknown, 
Utterly confident, 
Briskly wind-blown; 

And only a silken tether 
Holds it to sky. 
With my sturdy rope of faith 
How much more I, 

Facing to ways uncharted, 
Should dare swing out 
Above all old familiar 
Fear and doubt! 

Proven . . . Successful . . . Reassuring! 


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The importance of the family unit in the plan of the Lord cannot he overemphasized. The 
basic concepts of how the Church program is set up to strengthen the home is being presented 
throughout the Church as a part of the current Saturday evening program at stake con- 
ferences through a filmstrip, "The Eternal Family in the Church." Some of the pictures and 
part of the narration from that film are presented here as a further aid to an understanding 
of this program. 

We are members of the family of God our Eternal Father. He 
presides over a family organization. Our Eternal Father designed 
the plan of salvation and exaltation to enable us to become like him, 
thus gaining eternal families of our own. The family is the most 
important organization in time or in eternity. God has given us the 
Church as a service agency to enable us to create and perfect eternal 
family units; it exists to serve the family and the individual. 

The Lord's program is one of living and teaching the gospel. The 
home is the basic unit in which this purpose is achieved. Parents 
have the chief responsibility to bring up their children in light and 
truth, to prepare them for missions, temple marriage, and righteous 
living, and to walk uprightly before the Lord. 

Family home evenings are part of the program through which par- 
ents teach the gospel in the home. 

All of the priesthood and auxiliary programs of the Church are 
designed to aid parents and family members in living and teaching 
the gospel. 

Home teachers represent the Lord and serve under the bishop and 
the quorum leaders in watching over and strengthening the families. 

To avoid duplication in attempting to help the family, all Church 
programs, through correlation, must be tied together into one unified 
whole. Church activities in the ward are correlated through the 
ward priesthood executive committee, composed of the following: 
bishopric, ward clerk, executive secretary, high priests group leader, 
seventies group leader, elders president or group leader, and general 
secretaries of Aaronic Priesthood-Adult and Aaronic Priesthood- 


Improvement Era 

The ward priesthood executive committee, with the addition of the 
ward Relief Society presidency, becomes the ward welfare committee. 

Once each month the ward priesthood committee should be expanded 
into a ward council by addition of the following: Relief Society 
president, Sunday School superintendent, YMMIA superintendent, 
YWMIA president, Primary president, and others as needed. Thus 
all ward members and organizations are represented on the ward 

Just as there is in the ward a ward priesthood executive committee, 
so there is in the stake a stake priesthood executive committee. The 
stake presidency, high council, and stake clerk, meeting in their 
regular high council meeting, constitute the stake priesthood executive 

The stake priesthood executive committee, with the addition of the 
chairman of the stake bishops council and the stake Relief Society 
presidency, becomes the stake welfare committee. 

At regular intervals (preferably monthly), the meeting of the stake 
priesthood executive committee should be expanded to include superin- 
tendents and presidents of the stake auxiliary organizations, thus 
becoming the stake council meeting. Here the stake president, as the 
presiding high priest, will correlate all of the Church activities of 
the stake. 

The Lord has instructed priesthood members that they are "to watch 
over the church always, and be with and strengthen them" (D6C 
20:53) , "And visit the house of each member, exhorting them to pray 
vocally and in secret and attend to all family duties." (D&C 20:51.) 

One of the purposes of home teaching is to help implement these 
instructions of the Lord. At the home teaching seminar on •Septem- 
ber 29, 1966, Elder Harold B. Lee said, "Home teaching isn't just 
one of the programs. . . . Home teaching is the instrument by which 
we see to it, through the priesthood, that every program in the Church 
is made available to parents and their children." 



-jsrfP ■■ 


July 1967 


Presiding Bishopric's Rage 

It's Right There 

• Bishop Evans had received quite a shock, but he 
resisted the desire to lean over and whisper in the 
ear of his counselor. They were sitting on the stand; 
their sacrament meeting was proceeding smoothly, 
as planned. 

The bishop prided himself on being well organized, 
on being an able administrator. "When I can't figure 
out how to do it, I can always find it right there in 
the handbook," he used to say. And he took careful 
pains with all his church assignments. When he was 
scoutmaster he'd felt proudest when his troop won 
the most awards at their court of honor. But it 
wasn't something he'd done himself; it was because 
he'd read the handbook and wisely trained his able 
assistants. The same thing happened when he became 
MIA superintendent: in his second year he helped 
more young men to become Master M Men than all 
the other wards in the stake combined. He'd even 
been asked to speak at the awards banquet, and he'd 
been quite sincere in giving all the credit for this 
remarkable achievement to his officers and teachers. 
It was a tasteful, unselfish tribute. But everyone knew 
that the spark behind such accomplishments came 
from his own burgeoning abilities as an inspiring ad- 

He was the logical choice when a new bishop was 
needed. He had been more anxious than ever in his 
new calling, and after a year of hard work- he had 
come to feel very good indeed about most of his 
programs and people. But just before sacrament 
meeting this Sunday he'd been jarred sharply from 
his mellowing complacency. 

The stake clerk had called, saying he'd received 
Bishop Evans' fast offering report but it hadn't been 
signed. "Why, I'm sure I signed it," answered the 
bishop, "but perhaps I'm confusing it with some 
other report." The clerk indicated he could drop by 
before sacrament meeting, and the bishop was in his 
office waiting when he arrived. But when the unsigned 
report was brought out and laid before him, Bishop 
Evans smiled and looked up at the clerk. 

"But, Brother Clark, this isn't my report that's 
unsigned. This is Bishop Hardy's." Then the bishop's 
eyes rested upon the amount set down on the report. 
He blinked and looked again. 

"But, wait a minute. I can't believe this is all fast 
offerings on this report. Why, that's nearly three 
times as much as I've reported. I guess Bishop 
Hardy has doubled up several months' fast offerings." 

"No," said the stake clerk, "Bishop Hardy's ward 
always raises about that amount lately. He's been 
mighty proud of the way his people have been re- 
sponding to his encouragement that they fast properly 
and then make their contributions. Maybe that's 
the key. But he's also been trying something new 
as far as making fast offering collections." 

"Something new?" But the bishop didn't have time 
to hear more. It was time for him to go to the chapel 

for the start of sacrament meeting. 

* * * # 

Several nights later Bishop Evans and his second 
counselor entered Bishop Hardy's office and sat down 
across the wide table from him. As always, there 
was a pleasant exchange, brief remarks that involved 
their two neighboring wards. But finally Bishop 
Evans leaned forward, his expression showing a slight 
frown as he spoke: 

"You know, Bishop Hardy, I asked you to find some 
time for us for just one reason. Last Sunday I acci- 
dentally saw your fast offering report. I've told 
Brother Tanner here the figure I saw. Neither of 
us can understand how it can be so much higher than 
ours, especially when our ward has about twenty 
families more than yours. So, as we've talked about 
it, I suggested we just sit down and have you tell 
us what you've done that apparently we haven't been 
doing. We'd like very much to know." 

Bishop Hardy couldn't help but admire the man 
who sat before him. He had qualities of greatness, 
for here he was frankly asking advice. It was up- 
lifting to see him note such concern. He warmed 
to the request. 

"Well, I think I used to take fasting for granted. It 
didn't seem to be one of those things we had to get 
out and push. But perhaps you'll remember the 
encouragement the Church gave us a couple of years 
ago to help everyone understand just what fasting 
and fast offerings were all about. As I recall, they 
called it 'The Law of- the Fast.' " 

He noted that he held the attention of the two 
men who faced him, as he went on: 

"I thought we had done a pretty good job getting 
this message across. We used the flip-chart presenta- 
tion with our leadership, had an entire sacrament 
meeting on it, even sent out a special letter. And it's 
true, interest in fasting and fast offerings did seem 
to pick up. But only for a while. A look at our 
records proved that we were soon back down to where 


Improvement Era 

in the Handbook 

we'd been." He smiled and looked at them both. 
"About where you are now, I'd guess, if you say 
you're collecting a third as much as we. Because 
that's what happened all right: we've tried something 
new, and it's tripled the monthly total." 

"Just what is this 'something new'?" 

"First, let me tell you what motivated me to try it. 
After all that work on 'The Law of the Fast,' seeing 
the increase in fast offerings and then the ultimate 
slipping back, I'd become very aware that my people 
could be doing much more than they were in regard 
to fasting." 

He leaned forward in his chair, still looking from 
one to the other. 

"At our last tithing settlement I quickly saw how 
much each family had paid out as fast offerings. I 
was more than a little surprised! Some of our most 
active families were down on the records as having 
paid three or four dollars for the entire year. I was 
surprised and I didn't attempt to hide it." He paused 
for emphasis. "I asked them— full tithe payers— why 
they'd contributed so little in fast offerings. In al- 
most every case I got the same weak answer: they 
were always forgetting to include it in their tithing 
check— they were rarely in when the deacons came 
around— they'd meant to make it up but never gotten 
around to it. 

"Finally, I called a meeting of all those involved 
in fast offerings: my second counselor, the clerk, the 
Aaronic Priesthood— Youth general secretary, and our 
two deacons presidents, along with the advisers. We 
really had a session; we went over every name in the 
ward. I discovered, to my chagrin, that many families 
had no envelopes. They'd told the deacons they'd 
include fast offerings in their tithing checks. Yet 
these were the same families who ended up with 
almost no fast offerings paid for the entire year. 

"It wasn't a question of people not wanting to pay, 
or not knowing how much to pay. It seemed to be 
our manner of collecting. We had envelopes for some 
but not for others. If no one was home there was no 
follow-up, no attempt to give them another chance. 
As a consequence, we finally came to the conclusion 
we were only collecting from part of the ward part 
of the time. That's when we decided that in addi- 
tion to our commenting from the pulpit on the spiritual 
benefits of fasting and supporting the poor through 
fast offering contributions, we had to set up a new 
envelope collection system, one that would give 

everyone a chance to participate and enjoy these 

"First, we set up the Saturday previous to Fast 
Sunday as the day for the deacons to be out, going 
door to door. Next, we made out an envelope for 
every family and told them that if they didn't wish to 
contribute in the envelope, we'd still like to send the 
deacons to their door as a reminder that the next day 
would be Fast Sunday. Then we gathered all the 
deacons in the chapel, where we carefully checked 
out the envelopes to them. We insisted they go in 
pairs, just like the missionaries. They liked that; it 
made them feel their importance. 

"Then we laid down some hard and fast rules for 
the deacons: Don't leave the envelopes in the mail- 
box; don't slide them under doors; don't leave them 
with the members; don't go alone. We insisted they 
return all envelopes to the clerk the same day. Under 
no circumstances were the deacons allowed to keep 
envelopes with money overnight. And we started 
counting out the money in the envelopes in the pres- 
ence of each pair of deacons. 

"But we were still running into the problem of 
follow-up, making a firm contact with those families 
not home when the deacons called. So as part of our 
new program we started using the Aaronic Priesthood- 
Adults." He paused to see if this caught the other 
bishop off balance. It did. 

"Yes, we actually called our adults as drivers to 
take the young deacons around later at night when 
we could usually be sure we'd find someone home. 
And it's worked out wonderfully! Not just wonder- 
fully, marvelously! We couldn't be more delighted 
with the way these older brethren have caught the 
spirit of the thing. They even look forward to it, to 
pitching in and helping get the job done. It's as a 
consequence of this kind of thorough follow-up that 
we've tripled our fast offerings. But the secret to 
our success, of course, was in starting this new pro- 
gram when we did." 

"But the new program, all these rules and pro- 
cedures, where did you come by them?" 

"Come by them?" Bishop Hardy smiled more broad- 
ly. "Why, would you believe it, Bishop, we dis- 
covered them right in the Aaronic Priesthood- Youth 
handbook. It's right there in the manual! And by 
our following these suggestions, our ward members 
received spiritual strength, which is the greatest bene- 
fit of all." O 

July 1967 


Today's Family 

By Florence B. Pinnock 

# A chicken in every pot was the 
theme song of politicians in the 
nineteen-thirties. It was also the 
dream of every family during those 
depression years. The chicken-in- 
the-pot theme was a symbol of 
security. In those days people had 
little assurity concerning their 
future. Men— and perhaps women 
even more— have longed for secu- 
rity, a Utopia where all human 
needs are supplied. 

Security is a good sturdy word, 
a word strong enough to meet 
almost any emergency. If we can 
satisfy our own needs, we can stand 
tall and face the world; we are 
secure. Webster, when he speaks of 
security, claims that it is freedom 
from danger or risk, freedom from 
care or apprehension. 

A month-old-baby, a teenager, a 
man who has lived his threescore 
and ten years— all want a certain 
brand of security. The baby, we are 
told, needs to feel secure in the 
arms of his mother; he needs to be 
sure no one will drop him, that 
nothing will jar or crush him, that 
no loud noise or unusual tempera- 
ture will overpower him, and that 
food will be supplied at a moment's 

A teenager, in order to be secure, 
must feel that he is a special indi- 
vidual, that he is an important part 
of a group, and that he has freedom 
to think and to create. He must 
have enough within himself to be 
a person in his own right; he must 
feel big; he must feel adequate. 

An older person, in order to be 
happy and at peace with himself 
and the world, must be sure that 
his material and physical needs can 
be met as long as he lives. He must 
have the means to buy food, shel- 
ter, and clothing. He also has spiri- 
tual needs. As his days grow shorter 
in life, he must have a strong con- 

viction that he lived before he 
came to earth, that he now lives in 
order to grow and to gain knowl- 
edge, and that after death he will 
live again. 

All these needs of individuals for 
security blend together in the con- 
cept of love. Love is every age 
group's guarantee of security. The 
baby, the sixteen-year-old, the 
mother and father, and the seventy- 
five-year-old person have needs 
that may be met with love. It is 

said that "love makes the world 
go round." A lack of love causes 
family unhappiness, failure in life, 
and even worldwide wars. Love, 
happiness, and security are all 
closely linked together. Combined, 
they make a person safe, impreg- 
nable, and invulnerable. 

A chicken in every pot? Security 
in every home? A feeling of peace 
in every heart? This is what our 
restless old world needs, and it can 
have it through love. 


Chicken is a food for all seasons, 
but it gains its full measure of 
popularity in the summertime. It 
ranks among the favorite foods on 
any dinner table. The cost, flavor, 
availability, and simplicity of prep- 
aration all add to its desirability. 
Five to six people can be served 
from a four-pound stewing hen or 
frying chicken, either selection cost- 

ing about one 

dollar. Compare 

the nutritive value 

of that dollar spent 

for poultry with any 

other dollar spent for meat. 

The flavor of chicken is mild and 
can be spiced up in a barbecue or 
enhanced in a casserole. Nowadays 
chicken is plentiful any time of 


Improvement Era 


year. But occasionally it is such a 
good buy that it pays to stock the 
freezer with roasters, stewing hens, 
and fryers. Any child can stew a 
hen successfully, but chicken with 
its varied sauces can be a challenge 
to the most experienced chef. 
Seasonings should be subtle, so as 
to enhance but never to detract 
from the fresh chicken flavor. 
Nowadays we can buy any part 

of the chicken desired. Some birds 
are marketed with three legs or 
three breasts, or it is possible to 
buy all drumsticks, all breasts, all 
thighs, perhaps all necks. But who 
would want two dozen necks, un- 
less chicken soup were to be on 
the menu? 

Chicken Know-How 

Poultry is mainly valued for its 
protein, which is needed for growth 
and repair of body tissues. As a 
general rule, poultry contains far 
less fat than beef or pork. 

To store chicken, remove the 
wrappings. Rinse well and pat dry 
with a paper towel. Wrap loosely 
in wax paper or plastic wrap. Store 
in the coldest part of the refrigera- 
tor. Cook before the third day. 

To freeze chicken, put a clean bird 
into a plastic bag and seal. Do not 
remove from freezer until ready to 
use. There is no need to thaw the 
chicken if it is to be stewed. Always 
refrigerate cooked chicken imme- 

When serving fried chicken, pro- 
vide % to 1 pound per person; for 
stewing hens, allow Vz to 1 pound 
per person. 

Chopped fresh dill, dry mustard, 
paprika, curry powder, freshly 
ground black pepper, chopped 
parsley, thyme, bay leaf, rosemary 
—name the spice or herb, and with 
imagination it can enhance the 
chicken flavor. 

For toppings on chicken casseroles, 
use crushed potato chips, crushed 
corn chips, buttered seasoned 
bread or cracker crumbs, Chinese 
noodles, or any toasted nuts. 





Wheat is the heart of any food stor- 
age program, keep your wheat supply 
on a regular turnover basis rather 
than risk spoilage. Write for informa- 
tion about high-protein, cleaned 
wheat. Make your food storage pro- 
gram a practical program. 


That wheat you have stored in your 
basement makes the most delicious 
bread and other baked goods. Now 
you can convert your stored wheat 
into wholesome natural flour at your 
convenience by using the superb All- 
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Tremonton, Utah 84337 


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Chicken ,^^y 
in Every fc 

To make a Mexican chicken cas- 
serole, mix a can of mushroom soup 
with a can of tomato soup, season 
highly, and pour over a layer of 
corn chips and a layer of diced 
chicken. Top with grated cheese 
and bake. 

For a tender chicken with a mouth- 
watering flavor, soak the pieces of 
a fryer in buttermilk before dusting 
with flour and seasonings. 

To make an easy chicken pie, mix 
chicken, cooked peas, and white 
sauce; then top with canned baking 
powder biscuits. Sprinkle with 
grated cheese and bake in a 425° F. 

A quick chicken casserole can be 
made by mixing one can of cream 
of chicken soup, one can of mush- 
room soup, and one small can 
evaporated milk with 3 cups diced 
cooked chicken. Season and fold in 
1 small can minus V3 cup of Chinese 
noodles. Put in casserole, top with 
the Vz cup noodles, and dot with 
butter before baking. 


Paprika (use lots— at least 2 or 3 
tablespoons), flour, salt, and pepper 
mixed together make a delicious 
dusting for chicken before frying. 

One tablespoon of peanut butter 
adds taste to a creamed chicken 

Try adding 1 can bean sprouts 
(drained) and Chinese noodles to a 
chicken casserole. 

For delicious chicken soup, add a 
can of mushroom soup, chopped 
pimientos, minced parsley, and salt 
and pepper to chicken stock in 
which noodles have been boiled. 
Garnish each bowl of soup with a 
good sprinkle of grated Parmesan 

Baste oven-fried chicken with sour 

Sprinkle a package of dehydrated 
onion soup over browned chicken 
fryers. Add broth, cover, and bake. 

After chicken is browned, pour 
over it a sauce made of thickened 
pineapple juice, to which pineapple 
cubes are added. Cover and bake 
for 30 minutes. Serve sprinkled 
with toasted almonds. 

Add bleu cheese to sour cream and 
pour over browned fryers. Cover 
and bake until tender. 

After chicken is browned, pour 
over it a can of tomatoes, 1 chopped 
green pepper, and 1 chopped onion, 
and season with garlic salt, oreg- 
ano, and pepper. Cover and cook 
until tender. 

After chicken breasts have been 
browned and cooked until tender, 
cover each piece with a slice of 
Mozarella cheese and put into a 
350° F. oven until cheese melts. 
Serve immediately. 

Jellied Chicken Loaf 

2 envelopes unflavored gelatin 
V2 cup cold water 

3 cups hot chicken broth 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 
Salt and pepper to taste 

3 cups diced cooked chicken 
!/> cup diced celery 

3 tablespoons minced green pepper 
5 stuffed green olives, sliced 

Soften the gelatin in cold water and 
then dissolve in hot broth. Add lemon 
juice and seasonings. Chill until par- 
tially set. Stir in remaining ingredients; 
pour into a 6-cup loaf pan. Chill till 
firm. Unmold and serve garnished with 
parsley sprigs. 

Improvement Era 

Grilled Chicken Legs 

Wrap each leg securely in foil with a 
teaspoon of butter, a teaspoon of 
chopped green onions or chives, salt 
and pepper, and a pinch of garlic salt. 
Grill the packages over hot coals, turn- 
ing once. They will take about 40 min- 

Chicken Cacciatore 

(Serves 6) 

2 frying chickens 
Y 3 cup flour, seasoned with teaspoon 

crushed oregano, pepper, garlic 

salt, and paprika 
l / 2 cup salad oil 

1 big onion, chopped 

2 carrots, chopped 

1 pound can tomatoes 
1 8-ounce can tomato sauce 
Vi cup lemon juice 

Disjoint the chickens, dredge with 
seasoned flour, and brown in the salad 
oil. Add the other ingredients; cover 
and simmer about an hour or until the 
chicken is tender. Add 3 tablespoons 
minced parsley, then taste for season- 
ing. Serve steaming hot with French 
bread and a green salad. 

Simple Chicken Divan 

(Serves 6) 

2 packages frozen broccoli spears, 
cooked until just tender 
iy 2 pounds sliced cooked chicken 
2 cans cream of chicken soup 
1 teaspoon lemon juice 
1 cup grated sharp Cheddar cheese 
1 teaspoon paprika 

Arrange the broccoli in bottom of a 
13 x 9 x V^-inch pan. Cover with 
chicken; pour undiluted soup and 
lemon juice over all. Sprinkle with 
cheese and paprika. Bake at 375° F. 
for about 30 minutes. O 

Have you ever been confused 
about certain measurements in a 

A few grains of pepper means 
less than Va teaspoon. 

A dash of salt means less than 
y& teaspoon. 

1-pound package of powdered 
sugar equals 2% cups. 

1-pound package of brown sugar 
equals 2% cups. 

1 pound of flour equals 4 cups 

1 pound of sugar equals 2 cups. 

July 1967 



of four favorite Mormon Hymns 1 



y* ji H 

fM 'muu "■y" 9 ** ?2M 1 



i In a different musical vein, Roy M. Darley, 

Tabernacle organist, has just published a small 

! ; f 1 

Ibum that is sure to prove a favorite through- 

out the Church. At only medium difficulty, the 

transcriptions are of artistic musical design. 

■ arranged by floy M. Darley 

$1.50 Postpaid 







Please Send Copies 



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P.O. BOX 2307 DEPT. E7 


The Church 
Moves On 


April 1967 

Rl Ground was broken by Presi- 
dent N. Eldon Tanner and 
Elders Mark E. Petersen and Rich- 
ard L. Evans of the Council of the 
Twelve for an open-air theater for 
summer tourist productions between 
the Hotel Utah and the Relief So- 
ciety Building in Salt Lake City. 
Promised Valley, a musical produc- 
tion on the pioneer migration to 
Salt Lake Valley, will open there 
July 1 for a two-month run. 

The organization of a Church 
library committee was an- 
nounced. The committee, to work 
under the direction of President 
N. Eldon Tanner, has the respon- 
sibility for library and educational 
media centers in the wards and 
stakes. The program has been 
worked out in cooperation with the 
Church correlation committee. 
Members of the Church library 
committee are S. Lyman Tyler, 
chairman; H. Thayne Johnson, 
Donald K. Nelson, Leroy R. Linde- 
man, Earl E. Olson, Delbert E. 
Roach, and George Bickerstaff. 

The appointments of L. H. Curtis 
and Lewis M. Jones to the general 
board of the Deseret Sunday School 
Union were announced. 

Arlington Stake was organized 
through a division of Mt. 
Rubidoux (California) Stake with 
Clarence Leon Sirrine as stake 
president and Jack E. Dahl and 
David I. Tew as counselors. This 
the 430th stake now functioning 
was organized under the direction 
of Elder LeGrand Richards of the 
Council of the Twelve and Presi- 
dent Marion D. Hanks of the First 
Council of the Seventy. 

New stake presidency: Flagstaff 
(Arizona) Stake: President Nelo 
E. Rhoton and counselors, Frank J, 
Randall and Eldred S. Porter. 

Sixty-four teams began play 
in the annual all-Church vol- 
leyball tournament. Games are 
being played at Deseret Gym and 
Parleys Stake Center. 

fJJ The appointment of Edwin B. 
Firmage to the general board 
of the Young Men's Mutual Im- 
provement Association was an- 

Oakland ( California ) Fourth 
Ward won the senior title in the 
all-Church volleyball tournament. 
This is the second championship in 
two years for the team. Kahuwai 
(Hawaii) Ward won the junior 
division tournament. 

Under the direction of Elder 
Howard W. Hunter of the 
Council of the Twelve and Presi- 
dent A. Theodore Tuttle of the 
First Council of the Seventy, the 
six Brigham Young University 
Stakes were divided to form BYU 
Seventh and BYU Eighth stakes. 

Dean A. Peterson was sustained 
as president of BYU Seventh Stake 
with Lee B. Valentine and Robert 
Cheesman as counselors. 

David H. Yarn, Jr., was sustained 
as president of BYU Eighth Stake 
with Robert Junius Smith and 
Robert K. Thomas as counselors. 

Under the direction of Elder 
Marion G. Romney of the Council 
of the Twelve and President Paul 
H. Dunn of the First Council of the 
Seventy, the University Second 
(Salt Lake City) Stake was orga- 
nized, with Oscar W. McConkie, Jr., 
sustained as president and Donald 
K. Barton and Burton S. Tingey as 

The first of these student stakes, 
Brigham Young University Stake, 
was organized January 8, 1956. 
There are now 433 stakes function- 
ing in the Church. 

Improvement Era 

May 1967 

The Federal Communications 
Commission announced ap- 
proval of the sale of radio stations 
KMBC (AM) and KMBR (FM), 
Kansas City, to Bonneville Inter- 
national Corporation, broadcast 
arm of the Church. 

The First Presidency an- 
nounced the appointments of 
six mission presidents to fields to 
be announced later: 

Dean L. Larsen, Farmington, 
Utah, member of the priesthood 
missionary committee. 

Bryan A. Espenschied, Center- 
ville, Utah, bishop of Centerville 
5th Ward. 

Orville C. Gunther, American 
Fork, Utah, former bishop of 
American Fork 12th Ward. 

Rulon G. Craven, recently re- 
leased from the BYU Sixth Stake 

H. Duane Anderson, first as- 
sistant Sunday School superin- 
tendent, San Bernardino (Cali- 
fornia) First Ward. 

Harvey A. Dahl, patriarch to the 
Humboldt (Nevada) Stake. 

The appointment of Jay A. 
Quealy, former president of the 
Southern Far East Mission, as 
director of the Los Angeles Temple 
Visitors Center was announced. 

Mexico City North Stake was 
created by a division of Mex- 
ico City Stake, under the direction 
of Elders Marion G. Romney and 
Howard W. Hunter of the Council 
of the Twelve. Agricol Lozano was 
sustained as president of this the 
434th stake of the Church, with 
Daniel Taylor and Alfredo Pagaza 
as counselors. The Mexico City 
Stake was organized in December 

John D. Johnson was sustained 
as president of Chicago (Illinois) 
Stake, with Everett L. Butler and 
John M. Scowcroft as counselors. 

B. Darrell Call was sustained as 

president of Napa (California) 
Stake, with B. Gale Wilson and 
Garie H. Hillstead as counselors. 

The Salt Lake Tabernacle 
Choir presented a concert to 
7,000 assembled in Brigham Young 
University's George Albert Smith 
Fieldhouse, Provo. 

In many areas of the Church, 
evening programs and over- 
night camp -outs for the holders of 
the Aaronic Priesthood commemo- 
rated the restoration of that priest- 
hood, May 15, 1829. 

The First Presidency an- 
nounced the appointments of 
four mission presidents, with spe- 
cific fields of labor to be announced 

Theron M. Ashcroft, Cedar City, 
Utah, now president of the Cedar 
West Stake. 

Eugene F. Olsen, patriarch to 
the San Diego East (California) 

Thomas F. Jensen, now serving 
as bishop of the Butler Fourth 
Ward, Salt Lake City. 

Norman R. Bowen, Bountiful, 
Utah, of the adult correlation com- 
mittee of the Church. 

P| Sydney South Stake was cre- 
ated under the direction of 
Elder Thomas S. Monson of the 
Council of the Twelve and Elder 
EIRay L. Christiansen, Assistant to 
the Twelve, from parts of Sydney 
(Australia) Stake. John Daniel 
Parker was sustained as president, 
with Donald Newton and John G. 
Nicholson as counselors. This new 
stake is the fifth stake in Australia 
and brings the total number of 
stakes in the Church to 435. 

Elder Ronald W. Jackson, 21, 
Springville, Utah, serving in the 
Northern Indian Mission, was one 
of two persons killed in a two-car 
accident near New Town, North 
Dakota. Elder Doyle J. Tubbs of 
Ola, Idaho, was seriously injured. 

July 1967 






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Tabernacle Issue 

I was most interested and pleasantly 
surprised as I read the Tabernacle 
issue, particularly the article on the 
organ. I read the name of one very 
familiar to me — that of Luke Syphus, 
my great-great-grandfather. In the 
family history I have of him, Luke 
Syphus mentions that Joseph Ridges, 
the Tabernacle organ builder, was his 
very dearest friend. I like the way 
Brother Todd described Luke Syphus 
— "a spiritual storehouse" — and from 
the accounts in his history, I feel that 
more appropriate words couldn't have 
been found. 

Miss Lynne Stewart 
Los Angeles, California 

Genealogical Research Series 

Hurrah for your recent articles on 
genealogy! We all need a periodic 
boost, and your series has been just 
what the doctor orders. This is the 
kind of information that helps. 

Elizabeth T. Wight 
Arlington, Virginia 

A Man for All Seasons 

Your reviewer of A Man for All Sea- 
sons (April) states that Sir Thomas 
More "was a Catholic cardinal in Eng- 
land and a counsel of King Henry 
VIII." I believe that while you will find 
Sir Thomas a very devout man who 
wore a hair shirt next to his skin 
throughout life and regularly scourged 
himself in true ascetic fashion, he was 
never either a monk or a priest and 
hence never a cardinal in the Catholic 

It is true that while studying law 
as a young man he lived near the 
Charterhouse in London and took part 
in the devotions of that Carthusian 
monastery, and that he gave very 
serious consideration to becoming a 
monk, but in the end he decided he 
did not have a true devotion for 
monastic life and so never took any 
clerical vows. He was twice married 
and was the father of four children. 

Among the public offices he held are 
those of a Member of Parliament, 
speaker of the House of Commons, 
under-sheriff of London, and Lord 
Chancellor of England. Perhaps the 
reviewer was thinking of Thomas 
Wolsey, More's predecessor as chan- 
cellor, who was a cardinal. 

Robert J. McCue 
Orem, Utah 

Improvement Era 

Follow Me, Boys 

I received my Era yesterday and have 
almost completely devoured its con- 
tents. I feel compelled to write con- 
cerning your choice for the Family 
Movie of the Year, Follow Me, Boys. 
It was an excellent choice — the great- 
est picture I've seen in ages. 

Joyce Huntsman 
Merlin, Oregon 

Needs of Servicemen 

We four-year men aboard the USS 
Kitty Hawk wish to thank the Church 
for what it is doing for servicemen. 
The LDS servicemen's committee is 
doing a fine job, considering the num- 
ber of LDS men in the armed forces. 
But we need missionary tools, such as 
flannel boards, to help us with our 
many, many golden opportunities to 
present the gospel. Can't the Saints 
help us by sending these things to 
servicemen they know? 

Also, we need letters from home. 
Why don't the Saints and ward leaders 
write us? It would help 100 percent 
if they did. Some young men come to 
me and say, "Well, I guess the Church 
doesn't care about me; not even my 
bishop writes." We're trying to serve 
our missions here, and we love the 
Church. We'll give our support and 
hope to build up the Church in this 
part of the vineyard, but we need your 

Neal Burton 

LDS Group Leader 

USS Kitty Hawk 

Era Wrapper 

I have a complaint. I've been taking 
the Era for years and enjoy it very 
much, but almost invariably my copy 
arrives, after its bout with the postal 
service, so dog-eared that I have to 
patch it back together with tape. Can't 
it be mailed in a wrapper strong 
enough to protect it? 

Daniel R. Ward 
Florissant, Missouri 

We are investigating the problem and 
hope to find a satisfactory solution. 


and those Golden. 

Thanks so much for the wonderful 
article, "Me . . . and those Golden 
Questions" (March). It is a superb 
article. As a missionary, I have met 
many members who don't know how 
to use the golden questions, but I 
have never met a member who wasn't 
willing to learn. I feel it would help 
many members if you were to trans- 
late this article and put it in all 
Church magazines. 

Elder Ormas Don Hawkins 
Cochabamba, Bolivia 

It will appear in all non-English uni- 
fied Church publications throughout 
Europe and Central and South Amer- 

July 1967 

Con Cut 
Food Prices 

There's a real knack to 

grocery shopping. The 

average American 

housewife wastes a 

staggering sum 

of money each year. 

But why you? 

Learn how to shop 

efficiently with 

a course in 

personal finance. 

(Bus. Mgt. 205x) 


are available for rental from 
libraries located in: 
Salt Lake City Provo 

Lethbridge Mesa 

Los Angeles Idaho Falls 

New York City 
Write for free brochure. 

Deseret Book Co., Film Dept. 

44 East South Temple 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 

Educational Media Services 

Brigham Young University 

Provo, Utah 84601 

Use the handy coupon on 
page 73 to renew your Era. 


Aids in treatment of simple sore 
throat and other minor mouth and 
throat irritations. 


Salt Lake City, Utah 



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Many, many people 
have prescribed 
for the American farmer since 
the "farm problem" was disclosed 
at the end of World War I. That 
problem, however, was one of 
success, not failure. Nurtured by 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
by the land-grant college and uni- 
versity system, by tax-supported 
agricultural experiment stations, ex- 
tension services, mechanization, 
science, know-how, and hard work, 
the American farmer by 1919 had 
demonstrated that he could feed his 
own countrymen and part of the 
rest of the world, and still suffer 
from frequent "farm surpluses." 
Surpluses meant low prices. Low 
prices spelled success for the na- 
tion, but trouble for the farm- 

In 1820, 72 out of every 100 gain- 
fully employed Americans were 
farmers. Today, six out of every 
100 are so employed. America's 
farm population has declined stead- 
ily from 32 million in 1910 to only 
13 million today. These 13 mil- 
lion people till some three and a 
half million farms. The number of 
farms in America has been decreas- 
ing by approximately 100,000 a 

Yet the major world economic 
problem is shortage of food. One- 
third of mankind goes to bed 
hungry every night. Population 
increases, forecast for the next 
several decades, are rising more 
rapidly outside of the best-fed 
areas. The world's need for agri- 
cultural production has been re- 
sponded to by the U.S. Agency for 
International Development. USAID 
(and its predecessors) has been 
exporting American know-how, in- 
cluding technical assistance in 
agriculture, since President Harry 
S Truman formulated the funda- 
mentals of the foreign-aid program 
20 years ago. 

In the meantime, despite a 
variety of measures, price supports, 

Illustrated by Jerry Fetzer 

subsidies, and marketing arrange- 
ments, some American agricultural 
producers lose ground. In the 
spring of 1967, the National Farm- 
ers Organization (NFO) dumped 
milk in ditches and streets, pro- 
testing an 8-cent per quart price 
received from processors. 

If consumers pay 25 cents a quart 
at the supermarket now, should 
they pay 50? Or is milk precious 
enough that they should pay a dol- 
lar a quart? If so, can those who 
need it most afford to buy milk? 
Or will the American milk drinker 
turn to other beverages and foods? 

More than 30 years ago, in the 
early days of the Roosevelt "New 
Deal," the government decided the 
thing to do was to levy a tax on 
those who made money from 
processing agricultural products. 
The revenues should then be used 
to help raise farm prices by (a) 
limiting production and therefore, 
by eliminating surpluses, reducing 

Improvement Era 


These Times 

By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

President, Arizona State University 

the supply, and ( b ) subsidizing the 
farmer while doing so. 

The Supreme Court found this to 
be unconstitutional in the Hoosac 
Mills case, so the government came 
back with the "soil bank" idea in 
the Soil Conservation and Domes- 
tic Allotment Act of 1934. Price 
supports followed. Then came 
marketing controls and the whole 
menage that has accumulated to the 
present time. 

By mid-century, the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture had become 
the center of the most complex and 
intricate system of government- 
economic controls probably ever 
known to public administration, 
with farmer committees, loan 
systems, quotas, price supports, 
subsidies, and marketing agree- 
ments. The system continues today 
for the basic reason that America, 
as well as a good part of the world, 
is dependent on the American 
farmer for food and fiber. 

The American farmer is still a 
producer of raw materials even 
when said farm is not a family 
nor an individual farm, but a corpo- 
rate farm. Before the milk is finally 
consumed, the cotton shirt worn, 
or the bread buttered, a host of 
salesmen, transporters and shippers, 
processors and manufacturers, pack- 

agers, wholesalers, distributors, 
and retailers (plus some news- 
paper, billboard, television, and 
advertising men) have all been at 

To put the sugar beet into the 
sugar bowl or get the milk into 
the refrigerator involves many 

It has been said that the old-line, 
individual farmer lacked the desire, 
if not the genius, to organize his 
market and produce finished goods 
for it. Therefore, it was argued, 
to insure adequate food supply, it is 
better for the government to sub- 
sidize, sustain, and encourage the 
American farmer. Thus prices 
could be kept within bounds and 
the farms alive. 

With the growth of corporate 
farms, a change may be coming. 
This article is being written in 
Maricopa County, Arizona. The 
county contains nearly a million in- 
habitants. It ranks probably third, 
among the three thousand-odd U.S. 
counties, in the value of agricul- 
tural products it produces annually. 
It is one of the richest and best 
farm counties in the nation. Of its 
nearly one million people, only 
some 1,600 are farmers. A growing 
number of these are corporations- 
corporate farms. They are led by 
skillful entrepreneurs who have 
become scientific. Computers— not 
guesswork or a trip to the feed 
store— are utilized to determine 
cattle feed. Science and engineer- 
ing play increasing roles. Individ- 
ual farmers who cannot keep up 
with the competition drop out or 
consolidate forces. 

Perhaps the time is coming when 
protesting milk producers, rather 
than dump the nourishing fluid, 
will organize in corporate fashion. 
In cooperation with bankers and 
financiers, men of vision, with debt 
financing and corporate financing 
through sales of stock, may decide 
to move beyond the dairymen's 
cooperatives and the milk market- 

ing agreements supported by the 
government. Ingeniously, through 
difficulty and organization, they 
may find ways and means to de- 
velop their own Nestle-like con- 
cern. Like that great Swiss 
company, their organization could 
have its own butter and cheese 
division, its ice cream and confec- 
tion plants, and all the other 
manufacturing divisions and mar- 
keting and retailing outlets. Per- 
haps agriculture could thus move 
from Ruritania into the modern 
competitive system. Perhaps fash- 
ion designers, exhibiters, cutters, 
manufacturers, and retailers of 
garments will be employed and 
operated by stockholders who are 
essentially cotton growers and wool 
growers. They might well "diver- 
sify" (as contemporary economic 
parlance has it) with additional 
fabrics and products from synthetic 
fiber plants. 

There are signs that such de- 
velopments are potentially well- 
advanced. But in many cases, the 
farmers, especially the lone, indi- 
vidual farmers, haven't found the 
way to successfully participate in 
the corporate revolution. Twenty 
years ago, with eight or nine million 
farmers, the system looked over- 
whelmingly individualistic. 

Today, with three and a half 
million farms, the picture looks 
different. If those 1,600 farmers 
in Maricopa County, Arizona, with 
their financial sagacity, managerial 
skills, and engineering know-how, 
one day decided to organize "Ari- 
zona General Farm Products, Inc." 
and begin to build their factories 
and systems, as electronics firms 
finance and build factories, there 
could be some remarkable changes 
at home and, perhaps in time, 

In the meantime, let us hope that 
all farmers, both at home and 
abroad, continue to produce our 
daily bread with milk and butter 
to spare wherever possible! O 

July 1967 


End of an Era 

One morning on my way from 
the parking lot to my office 
in the Church Office Build- 
ing, I stopped momentarily 
at the large excavation 
behind the building. A young 
man stepped over by me and 
asked what was going on. 
I told him it was the 
excavation for a large 
multi-story church 
administration building. 
He replied as he turned and 
went down the street, 
"That's too much to spend 
on religion." I have been 
thinking since then, how 
much is too much?-Eldred 
G. Smith, Patriarch to the 

As we were riding to our stake 
conference one Sunday morning 
with our six children, we passed a 
family with fourteen children, 
also going to conference. 
One of our daughters asked, 
"What do they have such a big 
family for?" Our seven-year-old 
son replied, "So they can get 
their house cleaned faster!" 
— Submitted by Mrs. J. Thompson, 
Richfield, Utah 

One good way to save face is 
to keep the lower half shut. 

The man who loves truth 
is better than the man who 
knows it, and the man who finds 
happiness in it is better than the 
man who loves it. — Confucius 

It was July and time to tell the 
Primary children about the 
pioneer trek across the plains. 
After the story was told, the 
teacher asked the children to 
draw a picture showing the 
crossing of the plains. One young 
boy drew several airplanes with 
big crosses over them. Puzzled, 
the teacher asked him to explain 
his picture. Imagine her surprise 
as he explained that he had 
indeed drawn the ' l X"ing of the 
planes!— Submitted by Mrs. G. 
Stracke, San Francisco, California 

Life Among the Mormons 

Day of Rest 

By Virginia Maughan Kammeyer 

Rising from her bed at dawn, 

Mother got the breakfast on, 

Laid out all the Sunday clothes, 

Tied a shoelace, wiped a nose, 

Got the children to their chairs, 

So they could kneel for morning prayers; 

Reminded father time was fleeting — 

He must leave for priesthood meeting; 

Combed and braided tangled hair, 

Dressed herself with Sabbath care, 

Prepared a roast for their return, 

And fondly prayed it would not burn; 

Then nearly late, as was the rule, 
She took her young to Sunday School; 
Returned from service with her brood, 
Fixed the meal and gave them food, 
Reminded Dad while he was eating 
That he had another meeting; 
Even then could not retire — 
Had to practice with the choir; 
Made a Sabbath call and then 
Back she went to church again, 
Opened her book and sang with zest, 
"Beautiful day of peace and rest." 

Next Month: Brotherly Love 

"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences relating to Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 


Improvement Era 


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likely to 

• • 

. . . will have the help of 
Beneficial Life Insurance. 

Insurance can be a source of security and 
comfort to your family — but it can also 
be a means of improving the quality of 
life for each family member. Beneficial 
Life has policies that provide immediate 
estates for your family; policies that 
take care of your retirement in comfort; 
policies that create funds for missions 
and college educations; policies that 
safeguard the family home. The family 
most likely to succeed as a family will use 
the advice of their Beneficial Life Agent 
to create security and opportunity 
through insurance. 

""pTp TAT T TTTTi 1 

JLjjJLi_L tI JL.J.JL JL v,^ JLxIl.M. a Jljlm l_ JLJ 


Virgil H. Smith, Prcs. 


Salt Lake City, Utah